The area of modern Zambia was inhabited by the Khoisan people until around AD 300, when Bantu immigrants began settling the areas, and later in the 11th century major waves of Bantu immigrants arrived in the nation during the Bantu Expansion. The Nkoya people also arrived during the expansion, coming from parts of the modern-day Congo, followed by a larger influx in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the Mbunda and Nsokolo people arrived in modern-day Zambia as well.
The earliest European to visit Zambia was a Portuguese explorer, Francisco de Lacerda, who led an expedition from Mozambique to a territory in between it and Portuguese Angola, which they claimed. Other European explorers followed his lead in the 19th century, including famed Scottish. explorer David Livingstone. He was the first European to visit the famed Victoria Falls, named after the then-British queen, Queen Victoria. Highly publicized recounts of his journeys motivated a wave of European visitors after his expedition ended. Eventually the United Kingdom claimed the area as their own, and it came to be known as North-Eastern Rhodesia. That same year, they also conquered Zimbabwe and Malawi, which became South Rhodesia and Nyasaland. In 1953, they were all grouped together in a single autonomous region. A two-stage election was held in October and December 1962, helping give Zambia independence.
Northern Rhodesia became the Republic of Zambia in October 1964, with Kenneth Kaunda as the first president. His socialist UNIP party became the only legal party in the nation, under the motto "One Zambia, One Nation". He is still President to this day. In 1991, various Marxist states forced Zambia to convert to Marxism, which it did. It has a somewhat stable economy though it is a fairly poor nation.
Zambia is like the average Marxist dictatorship. It is unique compared to the others as it has had only one dictator. Political unrest is very uncommon, however, due to the lack of opposition parties In the nation.