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The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian: Савезна Република Југославија, Savezna Republika Jugoslavija), colloquially known as Yugoslavia (Југославија, Jugoslavija), and the FRY (СРЈ, SRJ); is a Southern European nation located in the Balkans. Established in 1992 from the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the FRY became a rump state comprised only of Montenegro and Serbia. The 1990s were a bloody period for the region as the former Yugoslav republics fought each other in what became known as the Yugoslav Wars. The conflict gradually came to an end by the late 1990s, which also sparked democratic reforms in the FRY. The non-Slavic region of Kosovo became an equal republic by 2000, followed by Vojvodina.
Yugoslavia and neighboring Albania and Macedonia are close to each other and remain the most pro-Soviet nations in Eastern Europe (even taking some part within the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Despite their pro-Soviet sentiment, all three nations have sought membership within the European Union, becoming candidate states in the these, these nations have also sought membership within the European Union (though their candidacy has not been recognized as of 2014).
Between 1943 until 1991, Yugoslavia was a larger nation, made up of six Slavic republics.
Amid the collapse of communism in eastern Europe and worldwide, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia would suffer the worst of it. By 1992, four of the six republics making up the SFRY had declared independence. Only the republics of Mongenegro and Serbia wished to remain in a federation. On April 28, 1992, the two republics established a "rump" government called the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The new nation declared that they were the successor state to the former Yugoslavia, but only the Soviet Union and a few other nations recognized its succession.
The war between the republics would take its turn in the former republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which had a great ethnic divide between Bosnian Croats, the Bosnian Serbs, and the Bosnian Muslims. In mid 1993, the Republic of Serbia declared their annexation of the Republika Srpska (the Bosnian Serb government centered in Banja Luka). Though it seemed like an empty threat with no real support, Croatia would soon follow suit and declare the annexation of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. In response of the annexation, the United Nations voted on sanctions of both Yugoslavia and Croatia (supported by all five permanent members). Despite support by American President George Bush, the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom would pressure to keep the conflict in Europe. The UK especially worried that the US or NATO getting involved in the Balkans may lead to Soviet involvement for their former socialist allies. Gorbachev would encourage this neutrality by threatening to assist the FRY if NATO were to get involved. Despite the threats from international leaders, the Yugoslav Wars seemed to really cool down by 1994. In 1995, the war would rise up with the joint Croatian-Western Bosnian operation to liberate Serbian-controlled region in Bosnia, soon to cross into area claimed by Srpska.
In December 1995, all the parties of the war signed the Dayton Agreement, bringing a ceasefire to the war. In early 1996, the war officially ends. The rump Bosnian government agreed to recognize the regions annexed during the war in exchange for compensation for their lose of land and crimes against their population. Because of which, sanctions on Yugoslavia and Croatia were lifted so that the countries could compensate Bosnia. the Central Bosnian government and the Republic of Western Bosnia would agree to unite under a federation, creating the Bosnian Federation.
Post-war and growth
With the end of the Yugoslav wars, most of the world was very happy to bring normalcy to the Balkans. Interests by the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom would help bring the war ravaged region back from bankruptcy.
With great support internationally (especially by Gorbachev), Yugoslavia would hold its first democratic elections in 1997. Milo Đukanović would be the first democratically elected president of Yugoslavia, winning in a landslide victory over challenger Slobodan Milošević. Đukanović's ideals seemed to be in sync with Gorbachev's policies of equality and sovereignty. Shortly after taking office, Đukanović granted autonomy back to the autonomous provinces of Serbia (which Milošević had removed during his term as President of Serbia), and worked on giving more sovereignty between Serbia and his home republic of Montenegro. Beginning in 1998, Macedonia would open up the possibilities of reintegration with Yugoslavia. The growing economy and more sovereignty in the FRY seemed to make more Macedonians feel interested in the idea. In on September 7, 1999, Macedonia holds a referendum on rejoining Yugoslavia, which would gain 60% support by the Macedonians. Macedonia would officially rejoin Yugoslavia on January 1, 2000.
The major question that gripped Yugoslavia would be the Kosovo question. During the late 1990s, the ideals of Kosovo becoming a full republic of Yugoslavia seemed to be possible. Many Kosovars would express the idea of a "Balkania," which would gain support internationally. In 1999, during the state visit of Mikhail Gorbachev to Yugoslavia, he would request to travel to Kosovo. In Pristina, Gorbachev would express his support for peace and cooperation between the Albanians and Slavs of Yugoslavia. Talks between Đukanović and Kosovar President Ibrahim Rugova would take place in November 1999. Though the first set of meetings did not reach a final solution, optimism was high for the Kosovars.
Ibrahim Rugova would soon express the idea of a united Dardania, which would unite the Albanians of Serbia and Macedonia into one republic (which gained strong support from the Albanians of Macedonia). In 2002, the republican assembly of Serbia unanimously voted in favor or recognizing Kosovar sovereignty, followed soon after by Macedonia. On July 30, 2002, Kosovo and Polog officially unite into the Republic of Dardania, which becomes a republic of Yugoslavia the same day.
Yugoslavia has taken an active role in European politics, both co-operating with the European Union and the Soviet Union. In 2005, Yugoslavia applied for membership in the European Union, and is currently a candidate (along with Albania and Turkey). Despite the current hopes to join the EU, Yugoslavia's cooperation with the Collective Security Treaty Organization has generally hindered the process of Yugoslavia's position in the EU. Yugoslavia is currently predicted to join the EU as early as 2014.
Yugoslavia is a federation made up of seven republics.