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Yucatan, officially the Republic of Yucatan (Spanish: República de Yucatán), is a nation located in southern North America that shares borders with Mexico to the west, Central America and the West Indies province of British Honduras to the south, and a maritime border with the US state of Cuba to the east, across the Yucatan Channel. Yucatan ranks as the 9th-largest nation in North America, with a population of just over 3.1 million.
The nation initially declared independence as early as 1823 (the First Republic of Yucatán), but within seven months, integrated itself into the original United Mexican States as the Federated Republic of Yucatán. But with Santa Anna's continuing centralization of the Mexican government following a coup d'état, independence was officially declared on October 1, 1841. Following a failed series of treaties signed in November, Santa Anna attempted to subdue the Yucatecan federalists with military force the following August, but failed to gain a foothold on the peninsula. Less than six months later, Santa Anna again sent troops across the Bay of Campeche, to finally gain a foothold in the republic's Campeche District. A force of six thousand troops was split into separate armies in order to lay siege to the city of Campeche and the capital Mérida. At the Battle of Pacabtún outside Mérida, the Mexican force of three thousand was utterly annihilated by a force of eleven thousand indigenous Mayans. Not wanting to suffer yet another humiliating defeat attempting to put down the revolt (by then considering it a waste of manpower), Santa Anna begrudgingly recognized the independence of Yucatan in August 1843.
Following early years of instability in which multiple presidents succeeded one other, Yucatan established relations with neighboring Central America in 1848, the United States in 1855, and eventually Mexico itself in 1860. The 1st Guatemala Uprising of 1895-1904 in Central America briefly spilled into the southern regions of the Campeche District in the summer of 1900, provoking short-lived political and military tension between the two nations. Following over a half-century of internal peace and only minor involvement in World War II, Yucatan was rocked by a brief, but violent civil war in the 1970s, instigated by Communist rebels (the Comunistas) from Central America. A period of reform and continued instability followed, up through the mid-1980s, when Francisco Luna Kan was elected to the presidency, finally calming over a decade of unrest.
Declaration and War for Independence (1841-1843)
Main Article: Yucatan Revolution (1842-43)
19th century (1843-1900)
Tensions with Central America (1900)
World War II (1941-1945)
Main Article: World War II (1938-1945)
Cold War era (1947-1991)
The Comunistas and Civil War (1973-1977)
Main Article: Yucatan Civil War (1973-1977)
Reform and Instability (1977-1984)
Modern Times (1985-present)
Main Article: Districts of Yucatan
Main Article: Armed Forces of Yucatan