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World War I occurred from 1914 to 1918 all across the globe between most of the nations of the world. It divided the world into two with two separate alliances: the World Entente and the World Powers.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria is held as the origin of the war, though their were many other causes such as the imperialistic foreign policies of the world in that time. A month after Ferdinand was killed Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, setting off a chain of alliances across the entire globe. The war spread to the nation's colonies as well.
The background of World War I can be traced to the creation of the World Powers and the World Entente, and the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Starting in 19th century, the nations of Europe tried to maintain a balance of power in Europe, and as a result was the World Entente and the World Powers.
The Central Powers originally began as the Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary, which began in 1879. This was seen as a way to counter Russian influence in the Balkans. In 1882, Italy was included in the alliance, so it became the Triple Alliance. In 1884, Scandinavia became part of the alliance because of the alliance between Russia and France, and this could lead to another attempt by Russia by gaining a port on the Baltic Sea, which Scandinavia occupied since the end of the Baltic Wars. The inclusion of Scandinavia gave the Quadruple Alliance, as it was called after Scandinavia joined, its first nation with territory in the mainland Brendanias. The inclusion of Normandy in 1885 gave the World Powers, as it was called after Normandy joined, its second nation with territory in the mainland Brendanias. The Celtic Union joined in 1905, because of Wales and the United Kingdom joining the World Entente in 1900 and 1904, respectively. China joined in 1902, after Japan joined the World Entente. When China joined the Mayan Empire joined as well.
Beginning in the mid-1890s, Germany's leader, Wilhelm II began to make improvements to the Imperial German Navy. Scandinavia, which possessed the fourth largest navy in the world, and Normandy, which had a big navy in order to protect it from threats from across the Channel, already had good-quality navies. With the launch of the HMS Dreadnought, the British Empire expanded on its advantage over the German Empire. However, Normandy and Scandinavia helped the German Navy improve, and improve it did.
The World Empire began with Franco-Russian Alliance, which was directed against the World Powers. This alliance drove Normandy and Scandinavia to join the World Powers. In 1900 Wales joined this Alliance, so it became the Triple Entente. Great Britain joined in 1904, which made the Celtic Union join the World Powers. The United Kingdom's navy was one of the greatest in the world, and had colonies all over the world. Wales possessed a colonial empire in southern North Brendania, as well as in the Caribbean. Japan joined the World Entente in 1901, in order to have greater defense from the rising threat of the Polynesian Empire in the southern Pacific. Virginia joined the Entente in 1906 as part of its goal to control the Great Lakes, which were under Scandinavian control. Phoenicia, a nation in South Brendania, joined in 1890, because of Normandy joining the World Powers.
Technologically, the World Entente were a bit better than the World Powers. Following the lessons learned in wars, Virginia and France build railroads and telegraphs across their lands. The Wright brothers flew the first airplane, and Virginia and the Entente quickly built more of them. The Entente would also invent the first tank. Great Britain's navy was also the finest in the world. It had launched the HMS Dreadnought in 1906, which gave it a small advantage over the German fleet.
In terms of landmass, both sides had colonies all over the world. The World Powers most prominent members, Scandinavia, Normandy, and Germany, had colonies in the Brendanias and Africa. Polynesia controlled large parts of land in the Pacific, stretching from New Zealand to Hawaii. In the World Entente, the United Kingdom controlled most of southern Africa and western Australia. France controlled land in South Brendania. Russia was the largest country in the world, and had colony in Alaska.
Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
On June 28 1914, Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austria-Hungary throne. This lead to Austria-Hungary giving the July Ultimatum to Serbia. The ultimatum was designed to unacceptable, as Austria-Hungary wanted war with Serbia. Serbia refused, so Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Russia mobilized and declared war on Austria-Hungary, which set up a chain reaction with the alliances of the world. France and Russia began operations against their enemies; France's main enemy was Normandy and Germany for them taking land in Franco-Prussian War, and Russia's main enemy was Scandinavia for taking away their access to the Baltic Sea. France and Russia were fueled with those animosities, began some of the first attacks of World War I. Virginia declared war on Scandinavia and began their plan to get the Great Lakes under their control. Britain entered the war after Normandy and Germany invaded Belgium.
The War began on July 28, 1914 when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, setting off a chain of alliances all across the world.
The first battles of the war involved Austria-Hungary against Serbia. Serbia defeated several Austrian attacks, preventing Austria-Hungary with a swift victory. Because of Serb resistance the Austrians had to keep soldiers in Serbia, which lessened its soldiers in the fight against Russia.
After the war began Normandy and Germany made incursions into France and Belgium. Norman support proved to be a great help to Central Powers, and after Belgium fell the Germans went farther into France as France had to hold back both Norman and German assaults. However, the Entente still defeat the Germans at the Marne, stopping the German advance. The Normans were stopped before Paris too. The Normans then attacked French and British positions at the Somme, hoping to stop them from attacking it from behind. The First Battle of the Somme resulted in a Norman defeat, and the battle was the last mobile battle in the Western Front. Trench lines were dug all across Western Europe, and trench warfare began.
Fighting Starts in the Brendanias
The first battles of the war in Brendanias were between the Chinese and the Russians. The Chinese and Russians were enemies after the Russo-Chinese War, and both sides were ready for fighting. The first battle of was the Battle of Portland, where the Chinese launched attacks into the city. The Russians had superior defenses and pushed the Chinese out. Chinese artillery continued to bomb the city, and Russian artillery fired back. Fighting also existed in the Gulf of Alaska. Chinese warships fought against Russian warships and sometimes Japanese. The Russians launched Operation Bering, which would be an offensive in the Chinese colonies in North Brendania as well as blockading the coast, preventing an Chinese supply ships from entering or existing North Brendania. The operation failed, and trench warfare settled in on the West Coast Front.
Naval warfare was the most important in the Caribbean Sea, where Mali and Chinese ships squared off against Welsh and Phoenician ships. The Welsh had the initial advantage as they had the most ships in the area, and they dealt defeats to the Chinese and Mayans. The Norse Navy engaged in battles with the Royal Navy near Iceland, Greenland, Ireland, and Vinland. Virginia was also in the war and was a member of the World Entente, so they tried to blockade Vinland, resulting in a defeat.
Naval warfare was also fought in Europe, where the British and Welsh attempted to blockade Germany, Normandy and Scandinavia. Scandinavia's navy was the strongest in Europe, only rivaled by Britain and possibly Wales. The Norse Navy engaged in battles with the Royal Navy near Iceland, Greenland, Ireland, and Vinland. Norse ships also attacked Russian ships in the Baltic Sea, and blockaded the Baltic Coast.
War Spreads to the Pacific
In March 1915, Japan began its attacks on German colonies and Polynesian territories in the Pacific. The Japanese had its main attack on Hawaii, an important Polynesian territory. Polynesia was neutral so far so the attack came as a surprise. The Polynesian military was quickly sent to hold its territory. Japan also began attacks on the coast of China. While Hawaii remained a stalemate the attacks on German colonies were more successful as the German military was mostly fighting in Europe. With the Japanese attack on Hawaii Polynesia entered the war on the side of the World Powers.
With Polynesia in the war the British invaded Polynesian Australia in order to take the entire island. Soldiers under John Monash crossed the border into Polynesian territory. The Polynesians became stretched with fighting in the Pacific Islands as well as on Australia. The Polynesians used trench warfare to stall the British. The Polynesian Navy also fought battles with the British near Australia. In the Battle of Melbourne several Polynesian ships clashed with British ships protecting the city. The British managed to secure victory, preventing a Polynesian blockade of southern Australia. The battle proved however that the fight for Australia would be deadly.
Following the declaration of war Russia invaded Galicia of Austria and East Prussia. Initial Russian advances into Galicia were successful. However, German forces defeated the Russians at the Battle Tannerberg in a bigger victory in OTL, and launched a huge counter-offensive. As the Normans were fighting against France it freed up more German soldiers to fight on the Eastern Front, resulting in slaughterings against the Russians at Tannerberg and Masurian Lakes and a quicker victory in Warsaw against the Russians.
The Russian Campaign was the name given to the German-Austrian Invasion of Russian in early 1915. The Austrians with German support pushed the Russians out of Galicia earlier, so Austrian troops were present in the campaign. Because of Central Power success the Entente could not convince Romania to enter the war, which freed Central soldiers from entering and occupying Romania. The first incursions into Russia were made in Ukraine, resulting in the taking of Kiev in June. Russian soldiers were sent to stop the the Germans from advancing farther, however Germany and Austria broke through Russian lines in late June and made several advances into Russian territory, the most notably taking of Tsaritsyn in late 1915, which jump-started the Russian Revolution, which was already in its early stages.
Fighting in the Far East
China squared off against Russia and Japan in the Far East. China had ordered an attack aimed at Vladivostok, but were stopped was a Russo-Japanese counterattack. The vast size of the Far East made trench warfare nearly impossible, allowing mobile fighting. Following the defeat at Vladivostok, the Russians attempted to invade Manchuria from the north, while the Japanese invaded from the east. The Russians main goal was to reach the important city of Harbin, while the Japanese were to occupy the coast. The Russians had problems getting to Harbin, and were stopped at the outskirts of the city. The Japanese also had mild success, with several ships destroyed near the coast and soldiers were killed on the beaches. The Invasion of Manchuria was a defeat for Russia and Japan, and also contributed to the Russian Revolution.
Central Brendania and South Brendania
Thought the fighting here was overshadowed by the fighting in Europe and North Brendania Central Brendania, South Brendania and the Caribbean had some of the fiercest fighting in the war. In Central America the Chinese and Mayans squared off against Welsh forces. The Welsh tried to land soldiers on the eastern coast of Central Brendania while Welsh soldiers advanced from their colonies in South Brendania. Most of the landings failed, but one landing managed to reach the outskirts of Tirosen. Meanwhile, Welsh soldiers advancing from South Brendania managed to defeat the Chinese forces, who were distracted by the landings. The Chinese tried to stop the Welsh armies from meeting the other army at Tirosen by fortifying the town of Madou. Welsh attacks of Madou began in June, but could not penetrate solid Chinese lines. Madou would be fought for for some more time.
In South Brendania the Welsh fought the Polynesians while the Phoenicians fought against the Norman colonies in South Brendania. The Welsh faced minimum resistance as the Polynesians had to protect Hawaii and Australia from the Japanese and British. the Polynesians still had some soldiers and militia there, but mainly militia. The Phoenicians faced a tougher challenge as the Normans were not spread out as much as the Polynesians. Trench warfare was widespread in the fight with the Normans in South Brendania, and both sides suffered huge casualties for little gains. In fact, Phoenicia had suffered 10,000 casualties in the Battle of Dieppe, a huge cost. The Battle of Dieppe had one of the highest casualties in the war in South Brendania.
Virginia opened the year with the Christmas Offensive, occurring after the Christmas Truce. The Scandinavians were forced to fight defensively, as the Virginians pressed hard. The goal of the Christmas Offensive was to reach Kensington, which would give them access to the Great Lakes. The Christmas Offensive failed because the Norse managed to defeat the Virginians in several decisive battles. As the Great Lakes Front settled into trench warfare it became clear the Virginian War Plan would not work. The plan was to defeat the enemy using its industrial capabilities and manpower. Trench warfare greatly helped the Scandinavians, and managed to stop the Virginians from securing a quick victory. The failure of the Christmas Offensive resulted in the Great Lakes Front turning into trench warfare for most of the rest of the war.
The Western Front became a stalemate, and despite wanting to keep a stalemate, an attack on Ypres was planned. The attack was planned to test a new World Power weapon: chemical weapons. 168 tons of chlorine gas was released toward French and English lines. The gas horrified the Entente soldiers and they retreated an a four-mile gap was opened in Entente lines. The Powers managed to exploit this with Norman troops and occupied this undefended land, creating a bulge in Entente lines. The Germans and Normans did not advance after this because of Canadian soldiers arriving to the battlefield. The Normans launched a gas attack during the Battle of the Somme, but had less success with the Entente equipping their soldiers with gas masks and other counter-measures. Scandinavia used gas later at the Battle of South Kensington against Virginia, and managed to take back some land from them.
The Gallipoli Campaign began in April. The World Entente, hoping to knock the Ottoman Empire out of the war and create a sea route to Russia, launched an attack on the Ottoman capital of Constantinople. Russia, knowing that a victory would be needed in order to have faith restored in the government, joined the operation as well. So the four Entente members were Britain, France, Russia, and Virginia.
The attack was interrupted by the Romanian entry to the war, which allowed the World Powers access to the Black Sea. Powers ships stopped the Russian attack, which allowed the Ottoman Empire to focus on the attack from the south. Italy also contributed to the Central Powers in the campaign by sending over much-needed soldiers and supplies.
The operation resulted in a defeat for the Entente, with heavy casualties for all members. The Ottoman Empire also suffered severe casualties. The defeat dealt a blow to the Russian government, and soon revolutions began all across Russia. The victory for the Ottoman Empire is seen as a defining moment for them. Romania's entry for the World Powers would help them later in the war.
Because of the failures in the war against the Central Powers dissatisfaction grew with the Russian government's conduct of war began. In December 1915 demonstrations in Petrograd resulted in Tsar Nicholas II to abdicate the throne and a Provisional Government was created. The new government was weak and chaos reigned at the home and the front, and the army became ineffective. Soon the Bolshevik Party under Vladimir Lenin came to power in Russia. The Bolsheviks began to negotiate terms with Germany, and an armistice was signed on July 16, 1916. This brought Russia out of the war, and sent German soldiers to the Western Front.
Fighting in Western Europe
By 1916 Western Europe had become a stalemate. Trench lines ran across Western Europe and prevented the taking of much land, and if much land was taken it was at a terrible cost. Norman and Entente soldiers were caught at the Somme, and in July the Entente attempted to take the Somme and crush Normandy. This resulted in half a million British casualties, and the attack was a failure. Following Norman victory Norman troops were sent to aid the Germans in the Battle of Verdun. British and French soldiers met the Normans at Epernay, which led to the Battle of Epernay. The Battle of Epernay resulted in 60,000 British and French casualties, and further weakened the French in the Battle of Verdun. The first Norman soldiers arrived at Verdun in October, and the Germans and Normans managed to capture Verdun in the middle of Verdun.
Battle of Jutland
Also fought in 1916 was the Battle of Jutland, the second largest naval battle in World War I besides the Battle of the Yellow Sea. Five navies fought in the Battle of Jutland, the British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet, the Welsh Navy, the German Navy High Sea's Fleet, Scandinavian Baltic Fleet, and the Norman Navy. The battle consisted of some of the world's best navies. The battle was fought over control of the North Sea. The World Powers attempted to destroy the Grand Fleet and Welsh Navy. The battle resulted in World Power control of the North Sea and the beginning of the World Power blockade of Great Britain.
Developments on the East Coast
With Russia leaving the war, Scandinavia would have lots of soldiers free to be moved to other fronts. Virginia knew they only had a short time to take Kensington and cross the Great Lakes, so they launched another attack against the city. The Norse defenders, who had been fighting in Kensington for a year, finally were defeated. Virginia now had to cross the Great Lakes and invade the industrial southern Markland. Ships began to built there.
While that was happening, Virginia also launched an attack at New Clonfert, a Celtic colony. Virginia hoped to advance here to Lake Erie, where another crossing could be attempted. The attack was lead by Frederick Funston. The Virginian army enjoyed success at first, but soon the front became trench warfare, with both sides bogged down. Virginia suffered severe casualties at the city of Duquesne, which was an industrial city because it was near Pittsburgh.
With Hawaii a stalemate, Japan tried to divert attention from it by attacking Sulawesi. With most of Polynesia's military focused on Hawaii, Japanese easily overwhelmed the Polynesian defenses. A joint Chinese-Polynesian military force was then sent in to reclaim the island. Both sides suffered enormous casualties, with the joint military force losing 10,000 in the first week. The battle saw the first use of the flamethrower in the Pacific, and it was used by the World Powers. Despite the casualties, the Powers continued to advance, taking most of the island back by the end of the year.
Italy had its first taste of battle during the Gallipoli campaign back in 1915. This time, Italy would attack Southern France in order to force France to split its military between northern France and southern France. Many of the fighting would take place in mountains, so it would be difficult to take but easier to take. The first attacks began in June, in the middle of the Battle of Verdun. Italy's goal was to take the city of Nice by advancing over land and landing from the sea. Italy hoped to surprise the French, but soon the Italians became bogged down in trench warfare.
All Quiet on the Western Front
By 1917 France was on its last legs. Its army had been mauled during the Battle of the Somme and the Battle of Verdun, and World Power soldiers were advancing. The Italians had managed to finally win in the mountains in southern France, and Italy had sent soldiers to aid in the taking of Paris. The Battle of Paris began with World Power soldiers circling the city, preventing anybody from coming in or out. The Powers soon began advancing inward to the city. Some of the French soldiers surrendered to the Powers, while others tried to fight. By ten days most of the city was captured. Near the end of the battle most of the soldiers were around the nearly-destroyed Palais Bourboun. After two weeks Paris had finally fallen and France surrendered. For the first time in three years, the sounds of war ended in Western Europe.
The Retaking of Hawaii
Sulawesi was liberated from Japan by China and Polynesia, and once again Polynesia could focus on Hawaii, which was currently in a stalemate. Polynesia attacked Diamond Harbor on April 16, which was the Japanese headquarters in Hawaii. The fighting was costly for both sides, but soon established a beachhead. Chinese reinforcements soon came. By May 3 Diamond Harbor was taken. Polynesia and China then went on to take the rest of Oahu and eventually Hawaii. Oahu was the most populous island in Hawaii, and everybody fought for a side. By July all of Oahu was taken except for Mount Ka'ala. Polynesia and China took control of the mountain by August.
While the battle raged in Oahu the others islands in Hawaii were ravaged. The island of Hawaii had the Japanese defenders stuck in Hilo as Polynesia and China constantly bombed and attacked the city. By June the city was finally taken. On the island of Maui the Japanese were defeated by August. By September Hawaii was retaken by Polynesia and China.
Trench warfare began in the western front in 1914. The powers of the world had dug defensive fortifications across the world, and the technology of the time was not advanced enough to break through. Artillery, which was more lethal in World War 1 than in earlier wars, proved to make crossing open ground difficult. Machines guns also made advances on open ground difficult. Barbed wire hindered advances, slowing soldiers down as they ran across no-man's land. Poison gas was introduced by the Germans and Norse in the summer of 1915. Both sides began to use it but it never proved to decisively win a battle, however it was the most-feared weapon of the war. Later technological advances were created such as the tank, and it first came into the battle in 1915. The Entente were the main users, however, the Norse used a number of tanks as well.
As the Central Powers made the first attacks in the war they built their trenches better than their Entente counterparts; Central Power trenches were designed to keep the Entente from liberating their occupied lands, while the Entente trenches were designed to be temporary, only to be used until a breakthrough was reached in Central lines.
The "Race to the Sea" found the trench lines on the Western Front to be from Lorraine to the Flemish Coast of Belgium as well as trench lines around Somme.
In the Brendanias trench warfare existed from the Virginia-Norse border and the Virginia-Celtic border. The Virginians used their manpower to their advantage, and used former black slaves to build their trenches. The Norse and Celtics had their soldiers build their trenches, and it was hard work. Virginia soldiers were better-rested, however this did not really prove anything in combat. In the Russo-Chinese Brendania front trench lines existed around Portland, and across the border.
In 1915, the Germans used chlorine gas at the Second Battle of Ypres, and the Norse at the Battle of South Kensington. This forced the Entente to retreat, resulting in holes in the lines. The Germans exploited this by taking Kitchener's Woods, and the Norse exploited this by taking Erikville. The Normans then used chlorine gas to defeat the British-French forces at the Somme, however the Entente soldiers there managed to prevent a Norman advance. These attacks were in direct violation of the Hague Convention. The gas became the most-feared weapon of the war; victims had slow, painful deaths. This resulted in both sides giving gas masks to their soldiers.
Trench warfare dealt many blows to the powers of the world in this time. On July 1, 1916 the British Army endured the bloodiest day in its history, with over half a million men dead during an attempted offensive against Norman and German positions in the Somme.
During this time neither power on the Western Front could launch an attack, and a stalemate ensued. The French Army was brought to brink of collapse because of the German action at Verdun and continued casualties against the Normans at the Somme. French mutinies began, and partially cost them their defeat during the Central Operation Mitchell.
Operation Mitchell was launched in 1917, and in preparation for the attack the Germans and Normans produced many tanks. The attack was launched on June 14 and the German soldiers advanced from the Hindenburg Line and Norman soldiers from the Norman Line. The operation included 660,000 men. As the Russian Civil began many soldiers from the Eastern Front were now at the west, and with extra soldiers because of the Normans, British-French positions were simply overrun and Entente soldiers were forced to retreat to Paris. The Germans and Normans took Paris on July 10, resulting in French surrender.
Even though the Central Powers enjoyed success in Europe, the Brendanias was still a stalemate.
Trench warfare ended in 1918, as the Entente was mainly in retreat. In early 1918 German and Norman soldiers came to North Brendania to aid in the campaign against Virginia. Trench lines were broken and Virginia surrendered in late 1918.
World War I reshaped the map of the world dramatically - Four Empires fell - the Russian, French, Welsh, and British. Other nations were significantly damaged, including Normandy, Germany, and Phoenicia. In the Brendanias, southern Markland, northern Virginia, eastern Virginia, and southern Clonfert were ravaged by the fighting. 10 million soldiers died in the fighting, as well as countless civilians. Many British and Welsh civilians died from starvation during the World Power blockade. In the Ottoman Empire, approximately 100,000 were killed because of famine. Famine also devastated Russia. Near the end of the war the Spanish Flu began which killed about 50 million people.
The map of the world was changed. In the Russian colony of Alaska, the Republic of Alaska was founded by anti-Soviets fleeing the Russian Revolution. Polynesia defeated the British and gained control of Australia. World Entente colonies in Africa were transferred to the World Powers, which expanded Scandinavia's and Germany's African colonies. Welsh colonies in North Brendania gained independence as the Colombian Republic, the Caribbean Federation, and the Southern Confederacy. France's colony in South Brendania would be transferred to Normandy, though Phoenicia later gained control of it. In Asia, China gained control of Korea from Japan and the Far East from Russia. China also moved its boundary in North Brendania to the 51st Parallel. Italy gained control of the island of Corsica.
Nations in the World Entente were punished after their defeat. They were forced to pay reparations and give land to the victors, as well as having their military limited in size. In Virginia the area around Pittsburgh became independence as Pittsburgh Territory. The World Powers made it independent so it could come under economic influence from Scandinavia and the Celtic Union, as well making Virginia lose one of its most industrial areas. The states of Wisconsin and Michigan were became demilitarized. In Europe areas in eastern and northern France also became demilitarized.
Many nations suffered from unrest of the war. In Virginia, many fascists and socialists attempted to gain power by telling the population that they must regain lost territory and get revenge on the World Powers. These failed, however, because most of the people wanted neutrality in any wars in the future. In France, Philippe Petain rose to power and became dictator of France. Japan became under control of a group of generals who made Japan became a militaristic, expansionist nation. Despite Italy aligning with the World Powers, Benito Mussolini and the Italian Fascist movement seized power. England and Wales soon became dictatorships too. Revolution gripped Russia and communists came to power under Vladimir Lenin.
The Treaty of Munich, the document that ended the war between France and the World Powers, severely punished France. It failed, however, to leave France pacified or permanently weakened. Erich Ludendorff stated that the treaty was only an armistice for 20 years. This would become true with the beginning of World War II in 1939.