World War II, AKA the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939-1946, though related conflicts began earlier. It involved a vast majority of the worlds nations including all of the great powers eventually forming two major military alliances: the Axis and the Allies. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. In the state of "Total War," the major powers threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by the mass deaths of civilians, including the holocaust, and the strategic bombing of industrial and populated centres, it resulted in the deaths of 90 to almost 100 million. This made the Second world war the deadliest war in human history.
The Empire of Japan aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, and was already at war with the Republic of China, but the world war is said to have truly begun in September 1, 1939 with the German invasion of Poland and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom. From 1939 to 1941, Germany conquered and controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance between Germany, Italy and Japan. Spain would later join the Axis after Germany has declared war on the United States of America. Based on the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic States. The war had continued primarily between the European Axis powers and the coalition of the United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth, the campaign included North Africa, East Africa, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz Bombing Campaign, the Balkan campaign as well as the long ruing battle of the Atlantic. On June of 1940, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history, which trapped the major part of the Axis powers in a war of attrition. Japan attacked the combined USA and USC forces and European territories in the pacific ocean, and quickly conquered much of the western Pacific.
The Axis advance was halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway to the Americans and Columbians near Hawaii, and Germany was halted in North Africa and then, decisively, defeated at Stalingrad in the Soviet Union. In 1943 a series of German defeats on the eastern front, and an allied invasion of Italy, which brought about Italian surrender, and American and Columbian victories in the pacific, meant that the Axis had lost the initiative, and undertook retreats on all fronts. In 1944, the Western allies had launched the largest amphibious assault on German occupied France and at Spain, whilst the Soviet union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945, the Japanese also suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in south Central China and Burma, while the allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key western Pacific islands.
The war in Europe ended with the invasion of Germany by the western allies and the Soviet union culminating in the capture of Berlin by the Columbian Military and the Subsequent German unconditional surrender on May 8 1945. Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945, and the Refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States of America dropped Atomic Bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, whilst the United States of Columbia fired the first Nuclear Ballistic Missile the Valkyrie 10 on Yokohama just hours after Nagasaki. Japan surrendered immediately the next day. Thus ended the War in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies.
The Second World War altered the political alignment and social structure of the world. The United Nations was formed out of a San Francisco meeting which was established to foster an international Co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Victorious great powers: The USA, USC, Soviet Union, China United Kingdom, and France, became permanent members of the United Nations Security council. The United States of America and the United State of Columbia emerged as global Superpowers, with the Soviet Union becoming their rival Superpower, setting the stage for the cold war, which would last for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, European Influence of the Great powers of Europe waned, while the decolonisation of Asia and Africa began. Most countries whose industustries have been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Pre War Events
Growing powers of the Axis
Throughout the 1930s, America elected a new president, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Columbian was struggling but surviving the great depression, and nations overseas were starting to take a turn for the worse. The German National Socialist Party (Nazis) gained significant support, and were getting braver. Hitler secretly constructed a military violating the agreement between Germany and the Allies to limit the size of their military. Meanwhile in Italy, Mussolini was gaining more support for his cause and ambitions of seeking to create a new and glorious Roman Empire. Meanwhile Japan was getting more aggressive and ambitious to established its own empire.
Testing of new weapons in Columbia and America
Meanwhile, whilst the growing future Axis were gaining power, Politicians in Columbia and America were preparing themselves new weapons to keep them ahead. In 1935, President Franklin Roosevelt and President George Wellington secretly attended a military test of the new Helicopter, modified with machine guns and rockets. The testing was successful and this was redubbed the Attack Helicopter. There was also a testing of a bigger helicopter, which would serve as a troop carrier and, a cargo transport. It was also here where Roosevelt met Congresswoman Marilyn Holloway, who would come to be one of Roosevelt's biggest supporter, and the First Female President of the United States of Columbia.
Columbian scientists were also working on an Atomic bomb, ballistic missiles, rockets, cruse missiles, jet fighters, jet bomber, APC's, and other terrific scientific and military advances. Through a large network of spies in Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and Japanese Columbian spies in Japan, it was able to keep its technology way ahead of the Axis. Though the Columbians were already working on such techs, they knew the Axis were trying to work on them as well, but it knew it was way ahead of them. Its northern ally the USA, also shared advances in military and scientific warfare, and the two great powers shared these technologies with each other and before during and after the war.
Spanish Civil War Erupts
When the Civil War broke out in Spain, Hitler and Mussolini sent military support on the side of the Nationalist Rebels leg by General Francisco Fresco. The Soviet Union supported the existing government, the Spanish republic. The international brigades, consisting of over 30,000 volunteers also fought against the nationalists. Both Germany and the USSR used this proxy war to test their military strength in combat with their latest weapons. The bombing of Guernica heightened concerns that the next war could involve terror bombing attacks on civilians.
Japanese invasion of China
As the Spanish civil war was escalating, Japan launched their invasion of China. In July of 1937, they captured the Chinese capitol of Beijing after instigating the Marco Polo bridge incident which culminated their campaign to invade China. The Columbians quickly signed a pact with China to lend their support, but it was limited for the people of the country didn't want to get drawn into yet another war. The Soviet Union also signed a pact with China to lend materials for support. After three months of fighting Shanghai fell. The Japanese continued to push the Chinese back, soon capturing Nanking in December of 1937. On June 1938 the Chinese flooded the yellow river to stall the advancing Japanese force. This gave the Chinese time to prepare their defenses at Wuhan, but it was taken by October. Japanese victories did not bring about the collapse of Chinese resistance as they hoped, instead the Chinese government relocated to Chongqing and continued the war. Again the league of nations did nothing.
The Inauguration of the first Female president of ColumbiaAs tensions were mounting overseas, Columbia is swearing in its first Female president. President Christina Holloway. Mrs. Holloway ran for president in 1937, and at first didn't receive as much support. The idea of a congresswoman wasn't new for the first woman in congress was Nancy Callaghan in 1903. However it was thought of as far fetched for a woman to become president of a country. Though she did gain attention for her voluptuously curvy body and her attractive looks, Mrs. Holloway proved to be a very strong and powerful candidate who eventually won over the people of Columbia, with the support of her two sisters Bryce Holloway and Jessica Holloway. She made a statement in one of her presidential debates "If the queen of England can defeat the Spanish armada, and lead her kingdom to victory, then there is no reason to think that a female president can't do the same thing."
Following her Inauguration, she criticized the League of Nations for not taking action on the insinuating problems that were worsening in Europe and Asia. She also formed a strong alliance with American president Franklin D Roosevelt, who supported her in her presidential campaign. She also sanctioned the development of newer advanced weapons in the USC military such as the attack helicopter, which is still a new concept that has never been tried before. She and her administration decided to keep it a secret as with Roosevelt's administration. America had been developing its own helicopter fleet. The same year she was elected president, she invited Roosevelt to attend a secret weapons testing of the new Jet fighters, though still in the experimental stage. Columbia and America also procured the worlds first Assault rifle, the AS-15, in America its called the M-15.
Both Presidents knew that sooner or later war will come and their countries might be dragged in once again, so it was necessary to prepare and search for new technological advances.
Soviet Japanese Border Conflict
Japanese borders in Manchukuo had sporadic border clashes with the Soviet Union and Magnolia, culminating in the Japanese defeat at Khalkin Gol. After this, Japan signed a neutrality pact with the Soviet Union, and focused its attention south, which would eventually lead to its war against America and Columbia.
European occupations and agreements
In Europe, Germany and Italy were getting aggressive. In March 1938, Hitler Annexed Austria, again provoking little response from other European nations. Encouraged by his new success, Hitler began pressing claims on Sudetenland, an area of Czechoslovakia where there is a German population. Britain and France followed a counsel of Prime minister Neville Chamberlain and conceded this territory to Germany in the Munich Agreement, which was made against the wishes of the Czechoslovakia, in return for Germany's promise of no further territorial demands.
Although Germany's stated demands had been satisfied by the agreement, Hitler had been infuriated by British interference that had prevented him from seizing all of Czechoslovakia in one operation. In a speech, Hitler attacked British and Jewish "war-mongers" and secretly ordered a build up of the German navy to challenge British Naval supremacy. In March 1939 Germany invade Czechoslovakia. President Christina Holloway condemned Hitler and demanded the League of Nation's do something, however the only countries doing something about is France and Britain, whom Holloway condones greatly.
On September 1st Hitler invades Poland, and is convinced that Britain and France will do nothing. The two governments meet and send hitler an Ultimatum, that he stop military action against Poland, Hitler refused, then on September 3rd 1939 at 11AM, the British Ambassador in Berlin, delivers a declaration of war. At 5 PM France declares war on Germany.
Course of the War
War Breaks Out
Initially the United States of Columbia, along with her northern Ally remained neutral. Although Both presidents Roosevelt and Holloway felt the need to support their over seas allies. Both presidents address their nations, stating that they would remain neutral but will support their allies. Poland is being ruthlessly carved up, the Soviets invading on the east, and Germany invading from the west, the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed a pact that would split Poland in two.
Sitzkrieg, Phony war, Drole de guerre
After Poland, Hitler doesn't immediately attack the west, instead a new phase of the war takes place, an entire waiting period that lasted the entire winter of 1939 to 1940. With this, France hasten to prepare for war, with some generals arguing they should attack first, making use of their tanks. France also orders 4000 planes from both America and Columbia in spite of the ever growing isolationist trend in their countries. Even in the Columbian presidency, Christina Holloway, and her sister Bryce Holloway are divided in whether or not Columbia should interfere with European problems. Though her other sister Jessica is in favor of supporting the allies. Jessica Holloway also became a supporter for Winston Churchill the new prime minister of Great Britain.
Attack on France
May 10, 1940, Hitler launches an attack on France, and attacked the neutral nations of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. That same day the British landed their forces in Iceland and the Faroes to Preempt a possible German invasion of the island. The United States of America agree to protect Greenland, as well as Columbia, both nations station troops there, but with the support of their people increasing in favor of isolationism, they are limited. In Dunkirk, the British had successfully evacuated over 300,000 of their own troops in early June, though almost of their equipment were abandoned.
On June 10, Italy invaded France declaring war on England as well. Paris fell to the Germans of the 14 of June and eight days later signed an armistice with Germany, and was divided into German and Italian occupying zones. German soldiers began seizing French records, including th treaty of Versailles, that so humiliated Germany in 1919. Hitler arrives in in Compiegne near Paris. He has ordered in the same railroad car that was used for the 1918 Armistice that sealed Germany's defeat, his revenge and humiliation of France is complete.
Columbia and America
Meanwhile back in Columbia and America, the news of their oldest ally's surrender hit Holloway and Roosevelt hard, they want to declare war on Germany, but their respected people supported neutrality. The only thing they could do was to support their last ally in Europe. Germany however did want to sign a treaty with Britain, they are after all Anglo-Saxon distant cousins of Germans. Britain would keep its empire, whilst Germany occupied Europe, but Churchill would hear none of it, he denies the German's proposal of peace.
President Holloway passes a law that allows women to join the Columbian military, this would later become one of the greatest decisions for it would increase the size of their military by almost 8 million. America and Columbia supplied mainland Britain with guns, tanks, antitank guns, anti aircraft guns, trucks, but still were in support of neutrality, however this support for their ally as created a multitude of jobs, something the America and Columbian people were craving for since the start of the Great Depression. Roosevelt claims that America and Columbia "must be the great arsenals of democracy."
Holloway's sisters Bryce and Jessica Holloway, whom has long disconnected with isolationism wants to desegregate the military to allow blacks and whites work together in the armed forces, Columbia did after all supported the Union in the American Civil war, with black regiments in the Columbian army fighting the Confederacy. Though they were disagreed with, they were able to desegregate the military. Now women can joined the Columbian military, in time, an all female bomber group would later become known by the Axis as "The Angels of Death."
President Roosevelt, following Holloway's footprints decides he too wanted to allow women to fight along side men, and allowed women to become fully involved with the military. He faced more resistance with his followers than Holloway, however, but was able to desegregate the military and allowed women to fight.
Though they are now preparing for war, however, they still supported neutrality but has upped their trade with Britain but their ships are being targeted by German U-boats, only some of their equipment's are getting through. Some of Columbian and Americans have volunteered to fight along side the RAF to defend Britain against the Luftwaffe, but were near the breaking point. However, luck was on the RAF's side, when Hitler made the mistake of bombing the big cities of Britain instead of the airfields, this gave the RAF time to re-organize and replenish their fighting air force. AT the Battle of Britain, Hitler loses patience, it is his first Major Defeat. Britain reigns victorious, the island is protected, but the war in the Atlantic rages on. And Hitler has launched his attack on the Soviet Union.
War breaks out in the Pacific
Pre-Pearl Harbor attack
In 1939, the United States of America and the United States of Columbia had renounced their trade treaty with Japan cutting off their aviation gasoline. Japan had become subjected to increasing economic pressure. During this time, Japan launched the attack on Changsha, a strategically important Chinese city, but was repulsed by late September. Despite several offensives by both sides, the Sino-Japanese war was stalemated by 1940. Japan invaded and occupied northern Indochina to cut off China's supply routes. Afterwards, the USC and USA issued an embargo on iron, steel, mechanical parts and oil against Japan. Other sanctions followed soon after.
In August of that year, the Chinese Communists led by Mao Zedong, had launched an offensive in central China. In retaliation; Japan instituted harsh measures in occupied areas to reduce human and material resources for the Communists,. This would greatly weaken the Chinese Communist Party. Continued antipathy between the Chinese nationalist and the Communists culminated in armed cashes in January 1941, which ended their co-operation. In March, the Japanese 11th Army attacked the headquarters of the Chinese 19th army but was repulsed during the battle of Shanggao. In September, Japan attempted to take the city of Changsha again clashing with Chinese nationalist forces.
German success in Europe encouraged the Japanese to increase pressure on European governments in Southeast Asia. The Dutch government to supply Japan with oil supplies from the Dutch East Indies, but negotiations ended in failure in June 1941. The next month, July 1941, Japan sent troops to southern Indochina, thus threatening British and Dutch possessions in the far east. The USA, USC, UK, and other western government reacted with this with a freeze on Japanese assets and a total oil embargo.
Since early 1941, the USA and USC engaged in negotiations with japan in an attempt to improve their already strained relations and end the war in China. During these negotiations, the Japanese brought forth a number of proposals to the Americans and Columbians, which they dismissed for they deemed them as inadequate. At the same time the USA, USC, Britain, and the Netherlands engaged in secret discussions for the joint defense of their territories, in an event of a Japanese attack against any of them. Roosevelt decided to reinforce the Philippines (An American Protectorate scheduled for statehood in 1946) and warned Japan that the US would react to Japanese attacks against any "neighboring countries".
Japan planed to seize European colonies in Asia to create a large defensive perimeter stretching to the Central Pacific. by doing this, the Japanese would be free to exploit the resources of southeast Asia, while exhausting the over-stretched allies by fighting the defensive war. To prevent American and Columbian intervention while securing the perimeter it was further planned to neutralize the Pacific Fleets of both countries and American military presence in the Philippines from the outset.
December 7, 1941
Hawaii was American territory, but because of the sister nations close relations, Columbia's battleship fleets were allowed to use Pearl Harbor to dock their ships. There were nine Columbian ships and over 10,000 Columbian soldiers were stationed there. On December 7th 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, and killed over 2400 Americans, and close to 1500 Columbians. The news reached the two countries and are no longer divided in opinions. Their citizens are furious and the full wrath of the two sleeping giants have been awakened.
Aftermath of the Pearl Harbor Attacks
President Roosevelt delivers his famous speech and declares war on Japan, 2 hours Later Holloway addresses her Nation and declares war on Japan. In cities all around Columbia, people rallied, furious that Columbians and their American allies were violated. Four days later, Hitler Declares war on America and Columbia, and two days later Spain aligns itself with the Axis powers and declares war on the allies. The war had now escalated into a world war, and the fire has been lit. America and Columbia were at war, and began their rise to become the most powerful nations on the planet.
On the same day as the Pearl Harbor attacks, Japan also attacked American and British holdings near-simultaneous offensives against southeast Asia and the central pacific. This also let Britain, China and Australia to formally declare war on Japan, whereas the Soviet Union, being heavily involved in large-scale hostilities with European Axis countries, maintained its neutrality agreement with Japan.
War in the Atlantic
Columbia and America are not at war, and both presidents Roosevelt and Holloway are faced with two options, who to attack first. Both nations decide to attack Germany first because both Holloway and Roosevelt felt that Britain is far too important to fall into enemy hands. But in the Atlantic ocean rests a gap where German U-boats have reign death and destruction on any merchant ship bound for Britain. It is part of Nazi Germany's plan to starve Britain into submission. At first the Americans launched convoys to escort the merchant ships on their way to Britain, but it was a disaster, over 500 ships were destroyed. But the British have manufactured a radar technology called the Magnetron 12 that was able to detect German U-boats.
With this, the giant industries of Columbia and America mass produced the Magnetron 12 and planted them on planes and ships. The U-boat threat had dwindled and the war in the Atlantic was all but won. However, Roosevelt and Holloway's choice to strike the Nazis first comes at a price.
Axis advance Stalls
In January of 1942, the USA, USC, Britain, Soviet Union, China, and 22 smaller or exiled governments issued the declaration by United Nations, thereby affirming the Atlantic Charter, and agreeing to not to sign a separate peace with the Axis powers.
During 1942, allied officials debate on the appropriate grand strategy to pursue. All agreeing that defeating Germany was the primary objective. The Americans favored a large scale attack on Germany through France, the Columbians would agree, however their generals also argued that since Spain has joined the Axis powers, they would send reinforcements up to France. And since the Fascist Spain takeover, the Germans have been helping Spain in economic and military buildup. By 1942 Spain is becoming more and more a military power. The Soviets were also demanding a second front. The British on the other hand, argued that military operations should target peripheral areas to wear out German strength, lead to increasing demoralization, and bolster resistance forces. Germany itself would be the subject to heavy bombing campaigns. An offensive against Germany would then be launched primarily by allied armor without using large-scale armies. President Holloway and President Roosevelt thought that the Africa campaign would also test their massive armies, and their new technology like the attack helicopter, the American AH-5 Sabre, and the Columbian GS-3 Victor. Eventually the Americans and Columbians agreed with the British that landing in France was infeasible in 1942 and they should instead focus on driving the Axis out of North Africa. By mid-November, the Germans had nearly taken Stalingrad in bitter street fighting when the Soviets began their second winter counter-offensive, starting with the encirclement of German forces at Stalingrad and an assault on the Rzhev salient near Moscow, though the latter failed disastrously.
Allies gain the Initiative
After the Guadalcanal campaign, the allies initiated several oppositions against Japan in the Pacific. In may 1943, the Americans eliminated the Japanese forces in the Aleutian Islands and regained their territories. Soon after, the Americans, with the aid of the Columbians, Australians and New Zealanders, began major operations to Isolate Rabaul by capturing the surrounding Islands, and to breach the Japanese Central Pacific perimeter at the Gilbert and Marshall Islands. By the end of 1944, the allies had completed these tasks, in addition, they had neutralized the Japanese military base at Truk in the Caroline island. In April, the allies launched an operation to retake Western New Guinea.
In North Africa, the combined American, Columbian, and British forces with the aid of Free France forces landed in North Africa in Operation Torch. Before it could even began, a joint Axis navy of Spain and Italy took the offensive to the Columbian navy, however the Columbians, with aircraft carriers and giant battleships obliterated the joint naval forces of Spain and Italy, and the allies were free to land their troops in Northern Africa. This was also the first time that both America and Columbia unveiled their new attack helicopters and took the Axis forces and their British allies by surprise. The helicopters attacked in mass numbers and were completely successful. They aided the ground forces and performed missions that went beyond just supporting the troops.
In the Soviet Union, both the Germans and the Soviets spent the spring and early summer of 1943 preparing for large offensives in central Russia. On 4 July 1943, Germany attacked Soviet forces around the Kursk Bulge. Within a week, German forces had exhausted themselves against the Soviets' deeply echeloned and well-constructed defenses and, for the first time in the war, Hitler cancelled the operation before it had achieved tactical or operational success. This decision was partially affected by the Western Allies' invasion of Sicily launched on 9 July which, combined with previous Italian failures, resulted in the ousting and arrest of Mussolini later that month. Also, in July 1943 the British firebombed Hamburg killing over 40,000 people.
On 12 July 1943, the Soviets launched their own counter-offensives, thereby dispelling any chance of German victory or even stalemate in the east. The Soviet victory at Kursk marked the end of German superiority, giving the Soviet Union the initiative on the Eastern Front. The Germans tried to stabilize their eastern front along the hastily fortified Panther-Wotan line, but the Soviets broke through it at Smolensk and by the Lower Dnieper Offensives.
Meanwhile the westerns were planning their invasion of Italy. The allies would land in Sicily first, however, George Patton's plan of landing at Palermo was agreed upon by other cabinets of the war department. The Columbian General Nathanial Jackson (The Columbian equivalent of George Patton) put up his plan which goes along with Patton's. A few months later on July 9 1943, the western allies launched an invasion of Sicily. General Nathanial Jackson and his forces landed at Syracuse, whilst Field Marshall Montgomery landed at Licata and Gela. It was also here that their superior technology that they were able to quickly defeat the Italian forces. Then the allies planned their invasion of Italy, that would take place in September 6-19 1943. For the Italian people the Allied takeover of Italy was the final humiliation and began to rise against Mussolini.
On September 6, the Americans landed on the western part of Italy, Columbians went to land on Italy from the Adriatic sea at Foggia, whilst the British landed on Taranto. The Americans were led by Patton, whom was about to be relieved of duty for slapping shell shocked soldiers, however his Columbian counterpart Nathanial Jackson tormented the allied war department demanding that they keep Patton. Jackson had led the Columbian military, whilst Montgomery led the British forces. On 12 September, the Italians had had enough of Mussolini, he was overthrown. This in turn led to the Armistice of Cassibile, however this also resulted with Nazi Germany disarming the Italian military, seizing Italian territories and building up a line of defence. Mussolini was rescued by German special forces, and established a new Italian state in German occupied Italy called the Italian Social Republic, which led to a civil war. The Western allies had fought through many defensive lines until they reached the Gustav line.
The German war in the Atlantic was also suffering. By June 1943, the allied countermeasures became increasingly effective, it resulted in an unsustainable amount of loss of German U-boats which led to the German war department to temporarily halt the Atlantic campaign. In November of 1943, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Christina Holloway, Winston Churchill met with Chinese general Chiang Kai-Shek in Cairo, and then met with Joseph Stalin in Tehran. The Cairo conference determined the Post-war return of Japanese territory, whilst the Tehran conference included an agreement that the Western allies would open a second front by invading Nazi occupied Europe and Fascist Spain in 1944, whilst the Soviet Union would declare war on Japan within three months of Germany's defeat.
From November 1943, during the seven-week Battle of Changde, the Chinese forced Japan to fight a costly war of attrition, while awaiting Allied relief. In January 1944, the Allies launched a series of attacks in Italy against Monte Casino in January 1944 and tried to outflank it with landings at Anzio. By the end of January, a major Soviet offensive expelled German forces from the Leningrad region, ending the longest and most lethal siege in history.
Allies Closing In
On June 6, 1944, the Western allies landed in Northern France, and Fascist spain. After reassigning several allied divisions in Italy and northern Africa, they also attacked Southern France, and Columbian forces attacked southern Spain. Within a month in July, the superior Columbian military had all but quickly defeated the spanish forces, and in July of 1944, they surrendered. News of Spains surrender infuriated Hitler, and called for another reinforcement of the Spanish forces, but ultimately changed his mind when he learned that Columbian forces had already entered France. On August of 1944, the Americans led by General Patton was the first to enter Paris, after a series of battles and French uprising in Nazi occupied Paris. General Nathanial Jackson and his army entered Paris and once again the Columbians, Americans and British forces were reunited on the same front, and began pushing east towards Germany. The allies attempt to enter Northern Germany in Operation Market Garden had failed. After that the Western allies had steadily pushed towards Germany, however they were motivated by the intense rivalry between Montgomery, Patton and Jackson to be the first into Germany.
On 22 June, the Soviets launched a strategic offensive in Belarus ("Operation Bagration") that destroyed the German Army Group Centre almost completely. Soon after that, another Soviet strategic offensive forced German troops from Western Ukraine and Eastern Poland. The Soviet advance prompted resistance forces in Poland to initiate several uprisings. The largest of these was in Warsaw where German soldiers massacred 200,000 civilians. Also, a Slovak uprising in the south did not receive Soviet support and was put down by German forces. The Red Army's strategic offensive in eastern Romania cut off and destroyed the considerable German troops there and triggered a successful coup d'état in Romania and in Bulgaria, followed by those countries' shift to the Allied side.
In September 1944, Soviet troops advanced into Yugoslavia and forced the rapid withdrawal of German Army Groups E and F in Greece, Albania and Yugoslavia to rescue them from being cut off. By this point, the Communist-led Partisans under Marshal Josip Broz Tito, who had led an increasingly successful guerrilla campaign against the occupation since 1941, controlled much of the territory of Yugoslavia and engaged in delaying efforts against German forces further south. In northern Serbia, the Red Army, with limited support from Bulgarian forces, assisted the Partisans in a joint liberation of the capital city of Belgrade on 20 October. A few days later, the Soviets launched a massive assault against German-occupied Hungary that lasted until the fall of Budapest in February 1945. Unlike impressive Soviet victories in the Balkans, bitter Finnish resistance to the Soviet offensive in the Karelian Isthmus denied the Soviets occupation of Finland and led to a Soviet-Finnish armistice on relatively mild conditions, although Finland later shifted to the Allied side.
By the start of July, Commonwealth forces in Southeast Asia had repelled the Japanese sieges in Assam, pushing the Japanese back to the Chindwin River while the Chinese captured Myitkyina. In China, the Japanese had more successes, having finally captured Changsha in mid-June and the city of Hengyang by early August. Soon after, they invaded the province of Guangxi, winning major engagements against Chinese forces at Guilin and Liuzhou by the end of November and successfully linking up their forces in China and Indochina by mid-December.
In the war in the Pacific, the Americans and Columbians had seized strategic military island bases in the western pacific, and in the Oceana islands. The Americans had decisively won the Battle of the Philippine sea, and the Japanese territory it had gained in its expansion were being lost to Columbian and American forces. The American forces had regained the Philippine islands, whilst the Columbians had New Guinea and so on. In late October, American forces invaded the Filipino island of Leyte; soon after, Allied naval forces scored another large victory in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, one of the largest naval battles in history.