See also: List of Governments
By the beginning of the 3rd Millenium (a.k.a., 2000), there were at least 22 sovereign nations in the world. Many former nations will either annexed by powerful ones through conflict or peacefully merged with others using diplomatic ways. Throughout history in just a little more than 200 years, the number of world nations has quickly dropped, which occurred due to the strengthening of some nations like the Americans, French, Chinese, and Japanese. Their status as powerful nations forced other weaker ones to give up land by war or forced unification. Because of the this, the term "World Cities" began to exist, meaning cities that have major political and economic power over their home country. This term is usually used for world capitals, like Paris, France, Washington D.C., America, Beijing, China, and Tokyo, Japan. All of these cities survived the test of time, outlasting civil disarrays and foreign occupation. In all countries, there are political divisions that legalize the states' rights and capabilities comparing to an independent nation. Yet these states are always together as a single nation by an official constitution, a single, national economy, military, currency, foreign policy, and most important and obvious, a government and a leader. However, in some cases, they can be united when the nation is fighting a war against the other. For example, the United States is divided into 28 States, while it has 9 colonies, each having semi-autonomous governments. Every one of them is ruled by a governor elected by the citizens in the state. While each state governs its own affairs, they are all together part of Congress, the main governing system of the country other than the Senate and the White House. This governmental system is known as the Federal Presidential Constitutional Republic.
Many other countries follow the old monarchy style. In the Chinese and Japanese Empires, it is ruled by a emperor, which is worshipped as a god. It is official that the Chinese and Japanese emperors have absolute power according to their constitutions (Second Ming Constitution for China and the Bushido Constitution), yet he must obey a code of law (Mandate of Heaven for China and the Bushido Law for Japan). If he disobeys even one rule of the set of laws, the government has the right to depose him. One of the most important rules include the banning of bribery, abusing of political power, cooperating in organized crime, and price fixing. Succession is also important, though purely hereditary. Upon being emperor, he must find the right heir to the throne that officially comes from the family blood.
Some countries, like Persia, Arabia, Ethiopia, and Hindustan, are ruled by theocratic law. For example, in Ethiopia, the Supreme Religious Leader is the official ruler of the country and the head of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. It is elected by the Council of Priests, who elect other well-known priests to the Council. Obviously, Christian law is the official law of the country. However, there are also a series of laws for the priests that prevent them to do "immoral actions", especially corruption. Any priests who do it are automatically removed from their position, but are pardoned by the government if they apologize for their sins.
See also: Human (Wikipedia)Humans, known by their scientific name Homo Sapiens (Latin for "wise man", or "Knowing man"), represent a variety of religions, races, ideologies, and cultures. While they are related to other animals (such as the reproductive system from mammals, skeletal system from the vertebrates, and social qualities of primates), they are the most advanced species in the world.
For example, they use communication as ways of self-expression, the exchange of ideas, and organization. They have created all kinds of complex social structures, which are made of of groups that either work together or fight each other. Human groups have a very large range, from singles, to whole nations. Human social interactions with each other established a multitude of values, social rules, and rituals. These three elements make up all of human society.
Culture, on the other hand, means the complex system of human symbolic behavior. It is the behavior that has to be learned through human social interaction and cooperation with others, including the use of language, ritual, social organization, traditions, ideology, and technology.
Because of their highly developed brain, they are capable of skills such as reasoning, language, introspection, and problem solving. This capability, combined with their hands' ability to manipulate objects, has allowed them to develop tools greater than any other animal. Though process traits of a human, such as self-awareness, rationality, and sapience, are known to be features what makes up a "person".
Currently, their population is estimated by the International League Human Watch to be 12 billion, while the United States Census Bureau estimated it to be at least 11.98 billion. Yet, unlike OTL, the population density does not focus itself on Asia, but through other parts of the world.
Their desire to influence and learn about the environment allows them to seek these answers through science, philosophy, mythology, and religion. Their curiosity has allowed the development of advanced tools and skills, which through cultural means, has been descended throughout history. Humans can build fires, cook food, clothe themselves, and create and use all sorts of arts and technologies. The study of humans is known as anthropology.
Unlike OTL, the technology of the world is slightly advance by ten years. That means that computers and electronic devices are more commonplace and and more advance. Cleaner energy fuels are also being used more commonly, though fossil fuels are still being used.
The world economy, or the global economy, generally refers to the economies of all of the world’s countries’ national economies. A global economy is also seen as the economy of the global society, while the national economies are seen as economies of ‘local’ societies, which make up the global society. It can also be evaluated in various methods such as currency for example such as US Dollars of Francs.
While not a part of the geography and ecology of Earth, it is not separable of the global economy, which includes global resources and their value. Although the definitions of a global economy vary, they exclude any resources or their value outside of Earth or any unclaimed areas in the world. For example, if there were mining operations on places such as Antarctica or Mars, they wouldn’t be considered a part of the global economy because even if mining was possible, they wouldn’t have the value even of uncreated intellectual property, such as a previously unrecognized invention.
Beside the minimum standard of value in production, use, and exchange in the world, the various definitions, representations, models, and valuations have been varied greatly.
It is common to never question the word economy from human economic activity, and the world economy it controlled by many factors such as monetary terms, even if there is no efficient market to help valuate certain goods or services, or sometimes, when there is no independent research or government cooperation which makes estimating figures difficult. Such examples include black market goods and illegal drugs which although technically part of the world economy, there is obviously no legal market whatsoever.
Although there are cases when there is a clear and efficient market to estimate a monetary value, economists are not often sure to use the current or official exchange rate to translate any monetary unit of a market into a single unit for the global economy. This is because exchange rates do not reflect worldwide value. This is often due to debts, deficits, bankruptcies, and volume or price transaction regulation by the government.
Instead, market valuations for any local currency are simply translated into a single monetary unit using the idea of purchasing power. The method is used for estimating worldwide economic activity in terms of US Dollars, Francs, Yuans, or Yens. However, the world economy can also be evaluated in numerous ways. Yet it is always unclear for how much of the world’s population are involved in the economic activity.
In 2012, the largest economies in the world with more than $2 trillion USD by nominal GDP are France, United States, China, Japan, Persia-Arabia, South Africa, and Nigeria. The largest economies with more than $2 trillion by GDP (or PPP) are France, United States, Japan, Persia-Arabia, South Africa, and Nigeria.
Because of countries’ greater need to compete in the world economy, international trade in the modern world is much higher ($50,475 billion USD per year). France is the largest exporter of goods, contributing to 33% of all exports. The biggest importer of goods is Ethiopia who spends $1,980 billion USD on foreign products per year. The French, who are the biggest exporters, use their wealth to balance trade to finance often huge investment projects in foreign countries. Concurrent, they are responsible for the contribution of 33% of South Africa’s $1,003 billion USD yearly capital account surpluses. The daily turnover in the Global Foreign Exchange Markets is estimated to be $5,340 billion USD with the most extensively traded currency in the world the Franc (which the French use for as the main monetary unit in international trade) at 102% out of the measured 200% of all currencies ever traded. The main currency trading center is New York City, though Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Shanghai, Tokyo, Yokohama, Dubai, Tehran, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Baghdad, Cairo, Seville, Rome, Berlin, Athens, Mexico City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Toronto, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Buenos Aires, Hong Kong, and Singapore are also known centers as well. The Franc is widely considered by economists the main currency for international trade and the international measurement of financial statistics. One France would equal $4.5 USD between 2005 and 2010 as measured by average price levels in each nation.
Main commodities and necessities tend to be the main import of developing economies as most of them focus on the expansion of their industrial and service industries. Yet some commodities such as fossil fuels can run export values as high as $2000 billion USD, precious stones and metals $1000 USD, iron and steel $900 billion USD, and machinery $950 USD. The allocation of certain resources is common for many countries. This is especially used in the economy, mostly for industries and services. For example, in Hindustan, resource allocation is subject to market forces due to the lack of sufficient infrastructure in certain areas to manage the country’s complex economy.
Of all the countries using government intervention, Mali is the least free while America is the most free. In Mali, private corporations are illegal and therefore, there are none. Personal income for all individuals is handed out by the government in Timbuktu usually based on social class. The Malian currency is pegged to the prices of food, camels, and certain other necessities to ensure that the allocation of money in the country will always be 100% sufficient. Food, property, fuel, and other commodities are provided by the governmental authorities. Health care is free for all with the system protected from flaws by strict laws that can charge people heavily for using emergency services for certain small-scale diseases. For other things such as vehicles, houses, clothing, entertainment, and leisure are provided by the people’s own income. In America, private corporations are everywhere in contrast to Mali. Personal income for all individuals is often handed out from corporations based on social class. The US currency is not pegged to anything, which allows businesses and people to set goods at their desired prices. Like Mali, health care is free and held together with strict laws. People can spend their money on what they want by making their own choices.
The French economy is a stable, but peaceful balance between capitalism and socialism, where the choices of what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce are decided by market forces and corporations without government interference (except in some situations). The government plays a role in maintaining a stable growth, low unemployment, and a cautious and stable rate of inflation. There is little management of the French currency, with interest rates controlled by banks and mega-level corporations and price control measures such as a minimum wage exist. Governmental policies such as the provision of unemployment benefits and corporate taxation do not exist, yet France gives the people 70% of their income and sales taxes are typically in the area of 5-15%, though they vary for certain goods and services. Yet the government always has vast funds at its disposal. It is capable of financing nearly incalculably expensive public works such as terraforming, new mega cities, terraforming, reverse desertification, infrastructure at enormous heights, and so forth.
Regardless of a country’s size, nearly each one has an economic advantage; in Persian-Arabia, Nigeria, and Liberia, they are one of the greatest controllers of the oil and natural gas monopoly, while China’s usual crop surpluses are shipped worldwide due to genetic and biological technologies. The food is often sold in prices they desire. In South Africa, its enormous reserves of gold and diamonds allow them to have one of the best economies and the monopolies of the precious stone and metal industry. In America and France, their extremely developed capital markets allow them to hold the top ranks in the industrial manufacturing sector. In Brazil, Hindustan, Zanzibar, the Congo, and Ethiopia, they are considered developing economies, having the fastest growing economies to help compete against higher-tier economic powers. The French, the Americans, the Chinese, and the Japanese have large populations which grant them low production costs in their industries and levels of industrial output unrivaled by other nations.
Continents hadn't changed much, yet unlike their OTL counterparts, the geopolitical borders are completely unrecognizable. Few major differences include in places like in the Ural Mountains, where the French Empire dug a canal connecting the Arctic Ocean and the Caspian and Black Seas, the Persian Gulf, where terraforming systems and water pipes transformed the desert around them into lush green land, the Qattara Depression, where there is now a large lake in place, and South Africa, where mining companies created canyons out of the mountains.
The border of continents is the same as it was in OTL, though for some continental regions, the borders have been more decided on than in OTL. Because of this, Napoleon managed to set his European Empire boundaries to the borders of the European continent.
- Western Europe
- Northern Europe
- Eastern Europe
- Southern Europe
- Northern Africa
- Western Africa
- Eastern Africa
- Central Africa
- Southern Africa
- Middle East
- Far East
- Central Asia
- South Asia
- Southeast Asia
- North America
- South America
- New Zealand
- West Antarctica
- East Antarctica
- South Antarctica
- North Antarctica
The calendar used in world business and day-to-day affairs has always been the Gregorian Calendar. Invented during the era of Pope Gregory XIII, it was made to replace the slightly inaccurate Julian Calendar. It is based on the original calendar though, just slightly altered. It marks years from BC years (years before Christ's birth) and AD (years after Christ's birth), though there is no year zero.
The months of the calendar are as followed; January (31 days), February (28 or 29 days), March (31 days), April (30 days), May (31 days), June (30 days), July (31 days), August (31 days), September (30 days), October (31 days), November (30 days), and December (31 days).
The time of day is at least 24 hours, which is determined with the use of the relationship between midday and the 12 hour system. 12 hours during midday are known as Ante Meridian (AM), while the 12 hours after that are known as Post Meridian (PM). Examples of how the time is formatted is this: 11:00 AM, 1:00 PM.
The Gregorian Calender is the most widely used calendar for civil reasons, though for religious reasons, the Julian, Chinese, Hebrew, Hindu and Islamic calenders are still used. In Ethiopia, the Ethiopia calendar is used. Baha'is around the world use the Baha'i calendar, while Buddhists use the Buddhist Calendar.
The importance of time keeping in society is so important that it is coordinated at an international level. Atomic clocks around the world are the basis for scientific time, which is a continuous count of seconds. One example of those clocks is the World Atomic Time (WAT), Terrestrial TIme and Barycentric Dynamical Time.
The Co-ordinated Universal Time, or known as UTC, is the basis for modern civil time. Made in January 1st, 1961, its purpose was to follow WAT to follow the number of seconds in the clock. It changes when a leap second is added, so that clock time can keep up with the rotation of the Earth. In both systems, the duration of the second in constant and important, which is defined by the unchanging transition period of the caesium atom.
The Worldwide Positioning System also broadcasts very precise time signals across the globe, and with it, instructions for converting GPS time to UTC.
There are numerous time zones that split the Earth, which each one exactly one hour apart, with their local time estimated by UTC. In many locations, they do change twice a year due to daylight saving time transitions.