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Without Islam

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In this timeline, the Prophet Muhammad died as a young boy in 580 AD and did not spread the doctrine of Islam. This timeline will show what the world will be like without Islam.

This has conditioned the dispersion, evolution and development of the religions and their cultural heritage. For more detailed information on this OTL see Religion.

622 - Second Sasanian War: Emperor Heraclius sails from Constantinople with an expeditionary force (probably 50,000 men) and starts a counter-offensive against the Sasanian Empire. Battle of Issus: Heraclius defeats the Persian forces under Khosrau II in Cappadocia. He recaptures Anatolia, but returns to Constantinople to deal with the threat pose to his Balkan domains by the Avars and puts the Roman army into winter quarters in Pontus. The Western Turks conquer the Oxus valley and cooperate with Heraclius against Persia, taking Chorasan.

623 - Second Sasanian War: Raising additional forces in Pontus, Heraclius strikes through the mountains of Armenia and the northern sub-Caucasian principalities. He plunders Media and avoids the Persian armies who attempt to trap him.

Western Europe: King Clothar II gives Austrasia to his son Dagobert I, age 20, effectively granting the kingdom semi-autonomy in repayment for the support of its nobles, most notably Pepin of Landen (Mayor of the Palace), and in recognition of calls from the Austrasians for a king of their own.

Tuyuhun invasion of China: Tang forces under Chai Shao defeat the Tuyuhun and prevent further incursions in Gansu (China).

624 - Second Sasanian War: Emperor Heraclius advances with an expeditionary force (40,000 men) along the Araxes River, destroying the fortress city of Dvin (Armenia). At Ganzak, Heraclius defeats the Persian army and destroys the famous fire temple at Adur Gushnasp, an important Mazdaist shrine. Shah Khosrau II, withdrawing most of his troops from Chalcedon, he assembles three armies to trap and destroy Heraclius' forces.

Western Europe: The Visigoths under king Suintila recapture the Roman territories of Spania (Andalusia) after 70 years of occupation. Only the Balearic Islands stay a part of the Roman Empire of Constantinople.

625 - Second Sasanian War: Emperor Heraclius marched with his forces west through the mountains of Corduene. In less than seven days, he bypasses Mount Ararat and captures along the Arsanias River the strategic fortresses Tigranakert and Martyropolis on the upper Tigris. The Persian army in northern Mesopotamia withdraw westward across the Euphrates. Heraclius pursues into Cilicia, accompanied by a great train of booty. Battle of Sarus: Heraclius is victorious in a Byzantine assault river crossing. The reinforced Persians are defeated along the Sarus River near Adana (Cilicia). He recaptures Cappadocia and Pontus, and returns to Trebizond to spend the winter. Shahrbaraz retreats in good order, and is able to continue his advance through Asia Minor towards Constantinople.

626 - Second Sasanian War: Siege of Constantinople: A horde of Avars about 80,000 men (including large contingents of Slavs, Bulgars, and other "barbarians") attack the walls of Constantinople. A small Persian army arrive on the Bosporus on the Asiatic side. The siege go on until two months, when the Persian fleet was destroyed in the while ferrying reinforcements. The Avars, having suffer terrible losses, running short of food and supplies, burn their siege engines. They abandon the siege and retreat to the Balkan Peninsula. The Romans achieve a decisive victory at Blachernae under the protection of the Church of the Virgin Mary.

Heraclius invites the Croats, to settle in Illyricum. They are given the land between the Drava River and the Adriatic Sea for ridding of Avars. The Serbs are allowed to move from their homeland north of the Carpathians to a territory east of the Croats. Heraclius asks Pope Honorius I to send missionaries to both groups.

Heraclius makes an alliance with Tong Yabghu Qaghan, khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate, for a joint invasion of the Persian Empire the following spring.

627 - Second Sasanian War: Emperor Heraclius sweeps through southern Armenia with a 50,000 expeditionary force, recapturing most of the Roman fortresses lost to the Persians ten and fifteen years earlier. Battle of Nineveh: Heraclius efeats the Persian army (12,000 men) near the ruins of Nineveh. Heraclius plunders the city palace of Dastgird and gains tremendous riches. Khosrau II flees to the mountains of Susiana to rally support for the defense of the Persian capital Ctesiphon.

628 - End of the Second Sasanian War: Khosrau II is forced to return all the territories conquered during the war. The Persians must give up all of the trophies they have captured, including the relic of the True Cross. Evidently there is also a large financial indemnity. Having accepted a peace agreement on his own terms, Heraclius returns in triumph to Constantinople.

Third Perso-Turkic War: The Göktürks under their leader Tong Yabghu Qaghan are defeated near Tbilisi.

629 - Roman Empire of Constantinople: Jerusalem is reconquered by the Romans (after 15 years of occupation) from the Persian Empire. Heraclius styles himself as Basileus, Greek word for "sovereign", and takes the ancient title of "King of Kings" after his victory over Persia.

Third Perso-Turkic War: the Sasanian army defeats the Western Turks. Persian victory and end of the war. Khosrau II reconquers Chorasan.

China: Emperor Tai Zong of the Tang Dynasty launches an campaign against the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.

630 - Roman Empire of Constantinople: Emperor Heraclius returns the True Cross, one of the holiest Christian relics, to Jerusalem. Heraclius issues in a decree that all Jews must become Christian; a massacre follows around Jerusalem and in Galilee.

Turkey: the Khazar leader Chorpan Tarkhan defeated the Gökturks and proclaimed him as khagan of the Khazars.

China: Illig Qaghan, Khagan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, is captured by Li Jing during the Emperor Taizong's campaign against Eastern Tujue.

631 - Roman Empire of Constantinople: Emperor Heraclius appoints Cyrus, patriarch of Alexandria, with power to act as viceroy (dioikesis) of Egypt. He begins a ten-year persecution against the Coptic Christians.

632 - Sasanian Empire: Shah Khosrau II, age 62, dies at Ctesiphon after a 41-year reign. His son succeed him as Kavadh II (632-634).

Eastern Europe: Kubrat establishes the confederation of Great Bulgaria. He takes power over the Bulgars and expels the Avars from his lands. Kubrat's rule stretches from the Danube Delta to the Volga River.

633 - Roman Empire of Constantinople: Monophysite uprising in Syria and Egypt. These religious conflicts are to be understood not only as such, but as national and democratic religious movements very influential on the poor masses and opposed to the authority of the Roman emperor and Hellenized upper classes. Thus, Persian domain of Syria and Egypt in the next centuries was possible due to this aversion to Constantinople and its interests.

634 - Sasanian Empire: Kavadh II mysteriously die. His son and successor, Ardashir III (632-641), was a puppet of the general Shahrvaraz (who really rules in the Empire).

Third Sasasnian War: Shahrvaraz reports the treaty of peace with Constantinople and invades Syria. Battle of Firuz: The Sasanian army defeat the combined forces of the Roman Empire of Constantinople and the Ghassanid kingdom near the Euphrates.

635 - Third Sassanian War: The Sassanian army under Shahrvaraz defeat the Roman forces led by Theodore Trithyrius at Pella in the Jordan Valley.

636 - Third Sasanian War: Emperor Heraclius assembles a large army (100,000 men) consisting of contingents of Romans, Arabs, Slavs, Franks, Caucasians and Armenians. He establishes a base at Gadara, close to the edge of the Golan Heights, protecting the vital main road from Egypt to Damascus. Battle of Hieromices: Persian forces decisively defeat the armies of the Roman Empire, effectively completing the Persian conquest of Syria. It will be regarded as one of the most decisive battles in military history.

637 - Third Sasanian War: April – Siege of Jerusalem: The Sasanian army (20,000 men) conquer Jerusalem after a six-month siege. Battle of Chalcis: Sasanians defeat the Roman army in Chalcis (Northern Syria). The cities of Beirut and Tyre are captured after a short siege. October – Siege of Aleppo: Sasanian army led by Farrukhzad conquer the Roman stronghold Aleppo, the large walled city surrender after a four-month siege. Battle of the Iron Bridge: Persian forces defeat the Roman army and Arabs near Antioch at the Orontes River. It marks the complete annexation of Syria into the Sassanian Empire.

638 - Third Sasanian War: Emperor Heraclius creates a buffer zone or no man's land in the heartland of Asia Minor. In the mountainous terrain of Anatolia, the Roman forces develop a system of defensive guerrilla warfare. The strategy is known as ‘shadowing warfare’, as it avoid battle with major Persian invasions and instead attacking raiding parties on their return when they are laden with booty, captured livestock or prisoners. The invading Persian army move into Anatolia conquering without strong Roman resistance, the cities Germanicia, Caesarea, Sebastia and Melitene (west of the Taurus Mountains). Persian forces march into Roman Armenia where they capture the cities Edessa and Amida up to the Armenian plain.

639 - Third Sasanian War: The Sasanian army under command of Shahrvaraz invade Egypt. They capture the strategic town of Pelusium (Nile Delta) after a two-month siege.

640 - Third Sasanian War: The Persian army under Shahrvaraz defeat the Roman forces near Heliopolis (Egypt). Persian army capture Babylon fortress after a seven-month siege, during a night assault Persian warriors open the city gates. The Upper Egypt is annexed by the Sasanian Empire.

China: Emperor Tai Zong of the Tang Dynasty begins a campaign against the Xiyu states (Western Regions) in the Tarim Basin. General Hou Junji captures the kingdom of Gaochang to solidify Chinese rule in Central Asia. Nestorian missionaries built the Daqin Pagoda in Chang'an.

641 - Roman Empire of Constantinople: February 11 – Emperor Heraclius, age 65, dies of dropsy [now known as edema] at Constantinople after a 31-year reign. He has reorganized the imperial administration but lost Armenia, Egypt, Palestine, Syria and much of Mesopotamia to the Sasanians. Heraclius is succeeded by his sons Constantine III and Heraclonas.

May – Constantine III, age 29, dies of tuberculosis after a four-month reign, leaving his half-brother Heraclonas sole emperor. Rumors spread that Constantine has been poisoned by Heraclius's second wife (and niece) Martina.

September – The Senate of Constantinople turn against Martina and her son Heraclonas, who are both mutilated and exiled to Rhodes. Supported by general Valentinus, Constantine's son Constans II, age 10, succeeds to the throne.

November – End of the Third Sasanian War. Persians under Shahrvaraz capture Alexandria after a fourteen-month siege. Roamn officials formally capitulate turning the city over to Persian hands. Constans II signs a peace with the Persian and establishes a new civil-military defensive organisation based upon geographical military district. Roman forces maintain the frontier along the line of the Taurus Mountains.

Sasanian Empire: October – Due to the immense power accumulated by Shahrvaraz and leveraging his absence, the feudal aristocracy removes Ardashir III and proclaimed Hormizd V (641-642) as King of Kings in Ctesiphon. Shahrvaraz does not recognize Khosrau III accusing him of not beig the first in line of succession (he was a doubtful grandson of Khosrau II). This event marks the beginning of the Seven Great Houses War (641-650) and forced to Shahvaraz to sign a peace with the Romans.

Seven Great Houses War was not only a Persian civil war, but also a struggle between the feudal aristocracy and the establishment of a centralized and absolute monarchy as representing the rise of the Pahlavian Empire.

642 - Seven Great Houses War: Shahrvaraz captures Ctesiphon at a brief siege and deposes Hormizd V. Khosrau III (642), nephew of Khosrau II, is proclaimed King of Kings by Shahrvaraz support. Yazdegerd III (642-651), supposed grandson of Khosrau II, is proclaimed King of Kings by feudal aristocracy. Battle of Nahāvand: Shahrvaraz defeats Yazdegerd III (who fled to Isfahan). Khosrau III mysteriously dies in Ctseiphon, what is exploited by Shahrvaraz for purge the aristocracy and proclaimed him as the regent of the Empire and leaving unoccupied the throne.

643 - Roman Empire of Constantinople: Maurice names himself dux of Rome and revolts against exarch Isaac (Exarchate of Ravenna). He declares Rome's independence from the Exarchate and from the Roman Empire.

644 - Roman Empire of Constantinople: Valentinus, Roman general, attempts to usurp the throne of his son-in-law Constans II. He appears at the gates of Constantinople with a contingent of Roman troops and demands to be crowned emperor. His claim is rejected and Valentinus is lynched by the populace.

Gregory the Patrician, Roman exarch of Africa, begins a rebellion against Constans II and proclaims himself emperor. The revolt has found broad support among the populace.

Seven Great Houses War: Battle of Estakhr: Shahrvaraz defeats Yazdegerd III who only maintains the territories of Hyrcania, Chorasan, Margiana and Sogdiana.

China: Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty sends a Chinese expeditionary force to invade and annex the Tarim Basin kingdom of Karasahr in Xinjiang, a vassal of the Western Turkic Khaganate. The oasis state is conquered and Western Turks to assist Karasahr are defeated by the Tang forces.

645 - Sasanian Empire: Greek revolts in Alexandria from Persian rule.

Roman Empire: Plato, exarch of Ravenna, invades the southern Po Valley. The Lombards under king Rothari defeat him on the banks of the Panaro River (near Modena); 8000 imperial troops are killed.

646 - Sassanian Empire: Alexandria is recaptured by the Persians.

647 - Roman Empire of Constantinople: Self-proclaimed emperor Gregory the Patrician is killed during the Moor invasion at Africa. Moor-Roman treaty: Exarchate of Africa returns to imperial allegiance, but the western territories are annexed by Kingdom of Altava (except Septum).

Seven Great Houses War: Shahrvaraz snatchs Hyrcania to Yazdegerd III.

China: Taizong establishes a Chinese military government to pacify the former territory of Xueyantuo, which extends to the Altai Mountains in the west.

648 - Roman Empire of Constantinople: Emperor Constans II, to quiet the intense controversy caused by the Monothelete doctrine, issues an imperial edict forbidding the subject to be discussed.

China: Tang general Ashina She'er re-established Tang control of Karasahr and leads a military campaign against the Tarim Basin kingdom of Kucha in Xinjiang, a vassal of the Western Turkic Khaganate.

649 - Roman Empire: Constans II orders Olympius, exarch of the Exarchate of Ravenna, to arrest pope Martin I on the grounds that he has condemned Monothelitism. Olympius attempts to gain support of the citizens of Rome and the bishops ordering the assassination of Martin.

650 - Sassanian Empire: Shahrvaraz directs a last offensive against Yazdegerd III setting battle near the city of Merv. Yazdegerd III is defeated and captured by Shahrvaraz. End of the Seven Great Houses War. Shahrvaraz go back triumphantly to Ctesiphon and assumes the title of Shahriyar (protector of the Kingdom). This marks the end of the Sasanian Empire, being replaced by the Pahlavian Empire. The Pahlavian period is characterized by a cultural renaissance and the restoration of Darius' empire: a strong centralized power divided in large satrapies whose satraps were named directly by the Shahriyar.

650-3

Worldmap at 650 AD

651 - Persia: Yazegerd III dies mysteriously in Ctesiphon. It is suspected that he was murdered on the orders of Shahrvaraz to avoid a possible revolt using his figure.

652 - China: Construction of the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda in Chang'an. It is completed in the same year during the reign of emperor Gao Zong.

Western Europe: King Rothari dies after a 16-year reign and is succeeded by his son Rodoald as king of the Lombards.

653 - Roman Empire: Pope Martin I is arrested in the Lateren in Rome along with Maximus the Confessor on orders of emperor Constans II and taken to imprisonment in Constantinople.

Western Europe: King Rodoald is murdered after a six-month reign and is succeeded by Aripert I who is elected as king of the Lombards. He spreads Catholicism over the Lombard realm and builds many new churches through the kingdom.

King Sigeberht I of Essex dies after a 36-year reign and is succeeded by his relative Sigeberht II. Sigeberht II is persuaded to adopt Catholic Christianity.

654 - Western Europe: King Recceswinth at Toledo draws up the Liber Judiciorum, a Visigothic code based on Roman law that establishes equality between Goths and Hispano-Romans without regard to racial or cultural differences.

655 - Britain: November 15 – Battle of the Winwaed: King Oswiu of Bernicia defeats his rival, king Penda of Mercia at Cock Beck, near what later will be Leeds (Yorkshire). Kings Cadafael Cadomedd of Gwynedd and Œthelwald of Deira, allies of Mercia, withdrew their forces before the battle begins. It marks the defeat of the last credible pagan force in England. Also it sowe the seeds which would lead to Anglo-Saxon acceptance of the Catholic Church (approximate date).

656 - Pahlavian Empire: Armed revolt in Egypt.

Western Europe: King Sigebert III of Austrasia dies after a 22-year reign. His 5-year-old son Dagobert II is kidnapped by the court chancellor, Grimoald the Elder, who makes his own son king; and exiles him to an Irish monastery. Dagobert is placed with Dido, bishop of Poitiers, while Grimoald's son Childebert the Adopted assumes the Austrasian throne.

657 - Arabia: Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan from the Quraysh tribe founds the Sultanate of Hejaz in Mecca.

China: Tang campaigns against the Western Turks: Emperor Gao Zong dispatches a military campaign led by Su Dingfang. He annexes the Western Turkic Khaganate.

Gao Zong commissions the pharmacology publication of an official materia medica documenting the use of 833 different substances for medicinal purposes.

Western Europe: Grimoald the Elder, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, is deposed by Clovis II, king of Neustria. He captures his son Childebert the Adopted executing them both. Later, Clovis II dies and is succeeded by his eldest son Chlothar III, age 5, who becomes king of Neustria and Burgundy under the regency of his mother Balthild.

658 - Roman Empire: Emperor Constans II undertakes an expedition to the Balkan Peninsula and defeats the Avars in Macedonia. He temporarily reasserts Roman rule and resettles some of them in Anatolia.

659 - Roman Empire: Constans II establishes the themata; dividing territorial command in Anatolia.

662 - Western Europe: The Franks take advantage of the Lombard civil war and invade Northern Italy, but are defeated by Gromoald I. King Chlothar III gives Austrasia to his youngest brother Childeric II. He is raised on the shield of his warriors and proclaimed king of Austrasia.

663 - Roman Empire: Emperor Constans II launches an assault against the Duchy of Benevento (Southern Italy). Taking advantage of the fact that Lombard king Grimoald I is engaged against Frankish forces from Neustria, Constans disembarks at Taranto and besieges Lucera and Benevento.

Constans II moves the imperial court from Constantinople to Syracuse. He tries to stop the Lombard conquest of Italy and restores Rome as seat of the Roman Empire. Constans strips sacred altar vessels from churches all over Rome.

May 8 – Battle of Forino: The Roman army led by Constans II is defeated by the Lombards under Romuald I. He seizes Taranto and Brindisi, receiving military aid from the Bulgar Alcek horde who are settled in the area of Ravenna.

Eastern Asia: The Tang Empire and Korean Silla Kingdom gain victory against the Korean Baekje Kingdom and their Yamato Japanese allies in the naval Battle of Baekgang.

664 - Pahlavian Empire: the Persians conquest the Buddhist Kingdom of Bamiyan. Fall of Kabul: Kingdom of Gandhara (also Buddhist) loss its capital city by Persian army and withdrawing its kingdom only to Kashmir.

Eastern Asia: A Tang source written by I-tsing, mentioned about Holing (Kalingga) kingdom, located somewhere in the northern coast of Central Java.

665 - Arabia: Yahya ibn al-Harith founds the Emirate of Najran, a Christian buffer state between the Sultanate of Hejaz and the Persian Yemen.

Eastern Europe: Kubrat, khagan of Great Bulgaria, dies after a 33-year reign. He is succeeded by his son Batbayan who rules from Poltava (modern Ukraine) the lands north of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.

667 - Pahlavian Empire: Persian conquest of the Buddhist Kingdom of Udyana (present-day eastern Afghanistan).

668 - Roman Empire: Emperor Constans II is killed under mysterious circumstances in his bath during a mutiny at Syracuse. The Roman court returns to Constantinople after an absence of 5 years. Probably assassinated by his chamberlain after a 27-year reign, Constans is succeeded by his son Constantine IV.

Mezezius, Armenian-born Roman general and patrikios ("first patrician"), is proclaimed emperor by the army in Syracuse. Constantine IV organizes an expedition to suppress the military revolt in Sicily.

Persia: Shahrvaraz receives an invitation from Tiberius, son of defunct Emperor Constans II, to help overthrow his brother Constantine IV in Constantinople. The shahriyar sends a Persian army under his son Javanshir against the Roman Empire.

Eastern Europe: Division of the Bulgars: Kotrag, khagan of Great Bulgaria, leads the Khazars in overthrowing his brother Batbayan of the Onogurs and moves south into the Caucasus Mountains. Asparukh, leader of the Utigurs, leaves the Poltava area and leads his people into Dacia in Eastern Bulgaria. Kotrag is considered the first khagan of Volga Bulgaria while Asparukh the founder of the Danube Bulgaria.

Eastern Asia: The end of the Goguryeo-Tang Wars, as Goguryeo fell to a joint attack by Tang China and Unified Silla of Korea, the latter of which held the former Goguryeo domains.

669 - Tiberian War: Pahlavian forces that have taken Chalcedon, on the Asian shore of the Bosporus, threaten the Roman capital Constantinople. The Persians are decimated by famine and disease. Javanshir, Persian commander, retreats to the island of Cyzicus.

670 - Tiberian War: The Persian fleet dominates the Aegean Sea and conquers the strategic islands, Rhodes, Cos and Chios. The southern shore of the Sea of Marmara is taken, providing an excellent base at Cyzicus to begin the blockade of Constantinople by sea.

671 - Pahlavian Empire: Shahriyar Shahrvaraz, age 79, dies at Ctesiphon after a 21-year reign and almost fourth decades of rulerment in Persia. He is succeeded by his son Javanshir, who leaves the campaign against the Romans and goes back to Ctesiphon to be crowned.

672 - Western Europe: Wamba succeeds Recceswinth as king of the Visigoths. After ascending to the throne he faces a revolt from Hilderic, governor of Nîmes, who has himself aspired to the kingship. He is supported by Gumild, bishop of Maguelone. Wamba sends dux Paulus to Septimania (Southern France) to end the hostilities, but on his arrival at Narbonne he proclaims himself king.

673 - Western Europe: King Chlothar III of Neustria and Burgundy dies after a reign of 16 years in which he has been a puppet of the Neustrian mayor of the palace, Ebroin. He is buried in the Basilica of St. Denis and succeeded by his brother Theuderic III.

King Wamba of the Visigoths puts down the revolt by Hilderic, governor of Nîmes and rival for the throne. He captures the rebel leaders who, are brought to trial and, for their crimes, scalped and imprisoned for life.

674 - Siege of Constantinople: The Persian fleet enter the Sea of Marmara and appear before the southern walls of Constantinople in an attempt to blockade the Roman capital. In April, a Pahlavian expeditionary force disembark on the Thracian shore (near Hebdomon) and lay siege to the massive Theodosian Walls on the landward side to the west. In winter, Persian forces under shahriyar Javanshir retire to Cyzicus. For the next 4 years the Pahlavian fleet install a loose blockade around Constantinople.

676 - Siege of Constantinople: Shahriyar Javanshir sends the Pahlavian army with Persian reinforcements to Constantinople. At the same time, the Romans have to face a Slavic attack on Macedonia and Lombard attacks in Italy.

678 - Siege of Constantinople: Emperor Constantine IV confronts the Persian besiegers in a head-on engagement. The Roman fleet, equipped with Greek fire, destroys the Persian fleet at Sillyon. Ending the Persian threat to Europe, and forcing shahriyar Javanshir to lift the siege on land and sea.

679 - Tiberian War: Emperor Constantine IV signs a peace treaty, of a nominal 30-year duration, with shahriyar Javanshir of the Pahlavian Empire. Javanshir relinquishes the cause of Tiberius for acceding the Roman throne and pays an annual tribute of 3,000 (nomismata) pounds of gold, 50 horses and 50 slaves. The Persian garrisons are withdrawn from their bases on the Roman coastlands, including Cyprus and Rhodes. End of the Tiberian War.

Western Europe: King Dagobert II is murdered in a hunting accident, near Stenay-sur-Meuse (Ardennes), probably on orders from Pepin of Herstal, the mayor of the palace of Austrasia. He is succeeded by Theuderic III who becomes sole ruler of the Frankish Kingdom.

680 - Roman–Bulgarian War: The Bulgars under Asparukh subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria north of the Danube Delta. Emperor Constantine IV leads a combined land and sea operation against the invaders and besieges their fortified camp in Dobruja. Battle of Ongal: The Roman army (25,000 men) under Constantine IV is defeated by the Bulgars and Slavic allies in the Danube Delta. Bulgar cavalry force the Romans into a rout while Constantine (suffering from leg pain) travels to Mesembria to seek treatment.

Pahlavian Empire: Ishmaelite revolt in Yemen against Persian rule. Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr, sultan of Hejaz, supports the revolt and declares war against the Persians.

681 - Roman–Bulgarian War: Emperor Constantine IV is forced to acknowledge the Bulgar state in Dacia and Danube Delta and to pay protection money to avoid further inroads into Roman Moesia and Thrace.

Pahlavian Empire: intervention of Persian Army helping Ghassanid Kingdom (Christian) against the Ishmaelites from the Sultanate of Hejaz, leaded by Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr.

682 - Northern Africa: Musa of the Nafusa tribe leads a revolt against the Roman rule in Tripolitania. Aksel, king of Altava, helps the Romans against the Moor rebellion even though they claimed a Moor alliance between the Romans.

683 - Siege of Mecca: The Persian army led by Hirbod besiege Mecca. After 64 days of siege the Persian army retires to Yathrib and, after a Hejazi counterattack, they 2withdrawed to Tabuk, in Ghassanid territory.

Eastern Asia: Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa performed Siddhayatra as the journey to expand his influence. The event mentioned in several inscriptions such as Telaga Batu inscription, Talang Tuwo inscription and Kedukan Bukit Inscription. The beginning of Srivijaya hegemony over the maritime region around Malacca Strait and Sunda Strait.

Northern Africa: Musa extends his power until the gates of Carthage. Battle of Vescera: a Roman-Moor army led by the king Aksel defeat the Nafusa near the town of Tibeskert. Withdrawal of the Nafusa rebels to Tripoli.

684 - Battle of Marj Rahit: Persian army under Javanshir defeat the Arab army of Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr near Damascus and cement Persian control of Syria.

India: The Pallava Empire invades the kingdom of Ceylon. A Pallavan naval expedition employing Tamil mercenaries ends the Moriya Dynasty.

685 - Roman Empire: Emperor Constantine IV, age 33, dies of dysentery at Constantinople after a 17-year reign and is succeeded by his 16-year-old son Justinian II.

Pahlavian Empire: Shahriyar Javanshir, age 55, dies at Ctesiphon after a 14-year reign. He is succeeded by his 29-year-old son Farrukhzad.

Eastern Europe: Kuber, brother of Asparukh of Bulgaria, defeats the Avars in the battle of Syrmia.

686 - Arabia: patriarch Mar Khnanishu I delivers the royal crown to the emir of Najran Yahya ibn al-Harith who becomes king Yahya I. This is an attempt to strengthen Persian power in Arabia.

687 - Pahlavian Empire: Shahriyar Farrukhzad negotiates a peace treaty with the Sultanate of Hejaz, resulting in sultan Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr paying tribute to Persia and accepting the buffer states of the Ghassanids and Najran. In compensation, shahriyar Farrukhzad has to recognize Yemen as an independent state. Zamir ibn Wahab al-Kahlan becomes sultan.

688 - Roman-Bulgarian War: Emperor Justinian II defeats the Bulgarians and carries out a Balkan campaign and marched through Thrace where he restores Roman rule.

Northern Africa: Battle of Mamma: Roman-Moor army is defeated and king Aksel dies during the battle. Breakup of the Kingdom of Altava. Musa start the dominion of his tribe proclaiming himself as king of the Moors in Altava. Due to many territories of the former kingdom did not recognize Musa's authority, Roman rule in Carthage remained for a decade.

690 - Northern Africa: Dihya, queen of the Shawia, defeats Musa near Meksiana. She resists attacks of Musa in her base of Khenchela (Numidia) during many years.

China: Wu Zetian ascends to the throne of the Tang Dynasty and proclaims herself ruler of the Chinese Empire as "Holy and Divine Emperor". She becomes the first and only female "emperor" in 5000 years of Chinese history. Wu Zetian changes dynasty's name to the Zhou Dynasty, and begins to murder throne pretendants and ministers who try to oppose her. During her reign she elevates the status of Buddhism to be above Taoism.

691 - Western Europe: King Theuderic III dies and is succeeded by his son Clovis IV, age 9, as sole ruler of the Franks. He becomes a puppet of his uncle Pepin of Herstal, mayor of the palace of Austrasia.

China: Buddhism is made the state religion of the Tang Empire.

692 - Moorish Kingdom: The city of Volubilis is conquered by Musa. Only the Kingdom of Khenchela and the Roman Exarchate of Africa in the Carthage and Septum areas resist Musa's rule in Northwestern Africa.

694 - Western Europe: King Egica of the Visigoths accuses the Jews of aiding the Moors, and sentences all Jews to slavery.

695 - Moorish Kingdom: Dihya conquers Cydamis blocking Musa's rule in Tripolitania. Tripoli is recaptured by Romans.

697 - Moorish Kingdom: Musa reconquers Tripolitania withdrawing the Romans to Cyrenaica.

698 - Western Europe: Wittiza, son of king Ergica, becomes co-ruler of the Visigoth Kingdom in Hispania.

Moorish Kingdom: The Moors capture Carthage from the Roman Empire. Musa is proclaimed "king of Carthage and all the Moors" as Musa I. Only the city of Septum resists under Roman rule.

Eastern Asia: Active but unofficial anti-Christian persecution begins in China.

700 - Western Europe: Pepin of Herstal, mayor of the palace, extends the Frankish Kingdom and annexes Thuringia. He turns the war towards the Alemanni.

Moorish Kingdom: Musa I defeats Dihya in Khenchela, who swears serfdom to the king of the Moors.

700-3

Worldmap at 700 AD

701 - Persian conquest of Armenia: Pahlavian prince Manuchehr invades the Roman Armenian provinces east of the Euphrates; local commander Baanes surrenders before an large Persian army and the population accepts a Pahlavian governor.

Western Europe: Raginpert dies and the deposed king Liutpert (see 700) returns to the throne of the Lombards. Raginpert's son Aripert captures Liutpert at his capital in Pavia and has him strangled in his bath. Aripert becomes new ruler of the Lombard Kingdom in Italy.

King Egica dies, possibly assassinated in a plot led by Roderic. He is succeeded by his son Wittiza as king of the Visigoths.

702 - Pahlavian Empire: Shahriyar Farrukhzad, age 46, dies at Ctesiphon after a 17-year reign without male issue. He is succeeded by his 36-year-old cousin Manuchehr.

Moorish Kingdom: the Roman city of Tingis is conquered by Moorish army. Musa I controls all Mauritania except Septum.

Arabia: Ethiopian (Axumite) raiders occupy the port of Jeddah.

703 - Moorish Kingdom: Musa I builds a Moorish fleet to harass the Roman navy and conquer the islands of Ibisa, Majorca, and Minorca.

Western Europe: Faroald II, duke of Spoleto, attacks the Exarchate of Ravenna in Italy after the death of his father Thrasimund I. King Aripert II of the Lombards, desiring good relations with the Roman Empire and papacy, refuses to assist him.

705 - Italy: Pope John VI dies at Rome after a reign of little more than 3 years. During his rule, he has protected the Roman exarch Theophylactus when he invaded the Italian mainland from Sicily. He also induced Gisulf I, Lombard duke of Benevento, to withdraw from Roman territory; ransomed captives and ordered the restoration of Wilfrid, as deposed bishop of York. He is succeeded by John VII as the 86th pope of the Catholic Church.

China: Empress Wu Zetian is deposed in a coup d'état organized by her chancellor Zhang Jianzhi after a 15-year reign. His chief ministers gain support from some generals to seize the imperial palace and execute the Zhang brothers. They reinstall her son Zhong Zong whom she deposed 15 years ago.

706 - Roman Empire: Patriarch Callinicus I of Constantinople is deposed by emperor Justinian II. He is also blinded and exiled to Rome, and succeeded by patriach Cyrus.

China: Emperor Zhong Zong has the remains of his mother and recently deceased ruling empress Wu Zetian, her son Li Xian, her grandson Li Chongrun, and granddaughter Li Xianhui all interred in at the same tomb complex as his father and Wu Zetian's husband Gao Zong outside Chang'an known as the Qianling Mausoleum, located on Mount Liang, which will then remain unopened until 1960.

707 - Italy: Pope John VII dies at Rome after a 19-month reign. Prolonged sede vacante until the ratification of the election of Sisinnius by the Exarch of Ravenna in early 708.

708 - Roman Empire: A Roman expeditionary force under emperor Justinian II is defeated near the seaside city of Anchialus on the Black Sea Coast. The Romans are overwhelmed by an surprise attack of Bulgarian cavalry led by Tervel. Justinian manages to reach the fortress and escapes to Constantinople on a ship.

Northern Africa: Julian, Roman commander of Septum, surrenders this city to Musa I. Only the Hellenized territory of Pentapolis (present-day Cyrenaica, in Libya) remains under Roman rule.

709 - Roman Empire: Emperor Justinian II sends a punitive expedition to Italy under the patrikios Theodore, to intervene in the dispute between pope Constantine I and the archbishop Felix of Ravenna who claimed to be independent of the pope's authority. Theodore captures Ravenna, and arrests Felix and other Italian leaders. He deports them to Constantinople, from where they were exiled to Cherson (Crimea).

710 - Roman Empire: The Roman province of Taurica (present-day Crimea) rebels with Khazar assistance against emperor Justinian II. He sends a fleet under the patrikios Stephen, which retakes the city and restores Roman control. The fleet however is struck by a storm on its way back and loses many ships, while Taurica, again with the aid of the Khazars, rebel anew.

Moorish conquest of Hispania: Roderic becomes king of the Visigoths but the Visigothic nobles in Septimania rebel and proclaim the previous ruler's son Akhila. The Visigothic Kingdom is divided into two sub-kingdoms.

Julian, former Roman commander of Septum and opponent of Roderic, encourages the Moors to invade the Iberian Peninsula taking advantage of the division between the Visigoths. Tikfarin, Moorish prince and son of Musa I, is seduced by this idea and drafts strongs garrisons in Tingis for preparing the invasion.

China: Zhong Zong is assassinated, allegedly poisoned by empress Wei who fails to install Shang as emperor. Princess Taiping and her nephew Li Longji, launch a coup and restore Rui Zong as emperor.

711 - Roman Empire: Philippicus Bardanes incites the inhabitants of Taurica to revolt with the help of the Khazars. Emperor Justinian II sallies forth from Constantinople to oppose the rebels in the Taurica. Philippicus defeats the Roman forces in northern Anatolia and seize the capital. He is self-proclaimed emperor and Justinian is executed.

Empress Theodora, hearing the news of Justinian's death, crowns her 6-year-old son Tiberius as emperor (Tiberius III). Thus begin a civil war between the loyalists of the Heraclian dynasty and the supporters of the usurper Philippicus Bardanes.

Moorish conquest of Hispania: Moorish troops (7,000 men) led by prince Tikfarin land at Moncalpe, and begin their invasion of the Iberian Peninsula (called Wandalus by the Moors). Tikfarin begins his Moorish conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom, which during the decade he occupies and brings under Moor sovereignty.

Battle of Lete: the Moorish defeat the Visigothic army (33,000 men) under king Roderic who dies in battle. The Visigoth capital of Toledo open its city gates, Tikfarin sends Moorish detachments to capture the cities of Cordova and Seville.

Tikfarin

Tikfarin, king of the Moors (716-730)

712 - Roman Empire: The Bulgars under Tervel, khagan of the Bulgarian Empire, raid Thrace and reach the city walls of Constantinople to rescue Tiberius III from usurper Philippicus' menace.

Moorish conquest of Hispania: King Musa I lands in Iberia (Wandalus) with an army of 18,000 men. He joins the Moorish conquest and captures the city of Hispalis (present-day Seville), where he meets stiff resistance after 3-months of siege.

China: Emperor Rui Zong abdicates after a brief reign in favor of his 27-year-old son Xuan Zong, who ascends the imperial throne of the Tang. Xuan Zong reestablishes its control over the Oxus and Jaxartes valleys. During his reign he defeats the invading Persian armies in a series of campaigns in Fergana.

713 - Roman Empire: Philippicus goes into Constantinople and orders the murder of the child-emperor Tiberius III. Ending the house of Heraclius that has ruled since 610. However, Philippicus is blinded, deposed and sent into exile by conspirators of the Opsikion army in Thrace after a reign of 1 week and 6 days. Artemius Anastasius, a bureaucrat imperial secretary and loyal of the Heraclians, is proclaimed emperor as Anastasius II. He restores internal order and begins the reorganization of the Roman army. He executes the officers who have been directly involved in the conspiracy against Tiberius III.

Moorish conquest of Hispania: Final defeat of the Visigothic Kingdom at the battle of Tormes (near present-day city of Salamanca). Prince Theudimer signs the Treaty of Aurariola with Tikfarin and is permitted to retain his authority in the area subsequently known as Tudmir. He keeps the citadel of Aurariola (present-day Orihuela) and several other settlements, including Lucentum (present-day San Juan) and Lorca on the Mediterranean Sea. At the same time, Musa I conquers the city of Emerita (present-day Merida).

714 - Moorish conquest of Hispania: Continuing campaigns of Moorish domination of the Iberian Peninsula. Moor forces raid the valley of the Ebro River and capture the fortress city of Zaragoza. Musa I proclaimed his son Tikfarin as protector of Wandalus.

Tikfarin conquers the cities Barcelona and Narbonne, where Visigothic nobles accept Moorish overlordship in return for autonomy in Septimania (Southern France). Supposedly also Moor raiding towards Avignon and Lyon. Other Visigoths revolt and proclaim Ardo as king. Visigothic refugees gather in the Picos de Europa in the mountains of Asturias.

Frankish Kingdom: Pepin II (of Herstal), mayor of the Merovingian palace, dies at Jupille (modern Belgium). His infant grandson Theudoald (age 7) becomes the nominal mayor of the palace while his repudiated wife Plectrude holds actual power and imprisons Pepin's illegitimate son Charles Martel. Civil War within the Pepinid clan; a revolt erupts between the Neustrian Franks and Frisians. King Radbod forces bishop Willibrord and his Benedictine monks to flee and advances as far as Cologne (Germany). Frisia (modern-day Netherlands) becomes again independent.

715 - Roman Empire: Emperor Anastasius II is deposed in an army mutiny and succeeded by Theodosius III, a tax-collector from the theme of Opsikion (Mysia). After a six-month siege, Theodosius and his troops take Constantinople; Anastasius is forced to abdicate the throne and retires to a monastery in Thessalonica (Macedonia).

Pahlavian Empire: Shahriyar Manuchehr, age 49, dies at Ctesiphon after a 13-year reign. He is succeeded by his 14-year-old son Jahangir.

Moorish conquest of Hispania: Moors led by Tikfarin advance and conquer the fortress city of Leon.

Frankish Kingdom: Battle of Compiègne: Ragenfrid, mayor of the palace of Neustria and Burgundy, appointed by king Dagobert III, defeats Theudoald. First battle of the Frankish civil war following the death of Pepin II (of Herstal).

Dagobert III dies of an illness and is succeeded by Chilperic II, son of Childeric II, as king of Neustria. Charles Martel is freed from prison at Cologne and is proclaimed mayor of the palace of Austrasia at the capital Metz.

716 - Roman Empire: Emperor Theodosius III concludes a peace treaty with Kormesiy, son of Tervel of Bulgaria, in an effort to secure support against the Arab invasion in Anatolia (modern Turkey). The treaty recognize the Bulgarian borders including the newly gained lands of Zagore (see 705). Theodosios agrees to pay annual tribute and exchange refugees charged with conspiracy against the legal ruler. Goods can only be imported or exported with a state seal. Bulgarian merchants gain official access to the trade market in Constantinople.

Moorish conquest of Hispania: King Musa I, age 76, dies at Cordova after a 28-year reign. He founded an empire that extends from Libya to the Pyrenees. He is succeeded by his son Tikfarin, who achieved great fame as the conqueror of Wandalus. Tikfarin establishes the royal residence in the city of Cordova, turning this city into the cultural center of the Moorish world for the next three centuries.

Frankish Kingdom: Battle of Cologne: Charles Martel, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, is defeated by the Neustrians under king Chilperic II and his mayor Ragenfrid near Cologne (now part of Germany) who have invade Austrasia to impose their will on the competing Frankish factions of Theudoald and Plectrude, grandson (and designated heir) and widow of Pepin of Herstal. Simultaneously, Radbod, king (or duke) of the Frisians, attacks Austrasia and allies with the Neustrians. Charles is forced to flee into the mountains of the Eifel (Ardennes).

Battle of Amblève: Charles Martel defeats his Neustrian and Frisian rivals near Amel (modern-day Belgium). His forces attack the army of Chilperic II and his allies as they return triumphantly from Cologne. According to the Annals of Metz, Charles uses a feigned retreat to destroy his foes while they are resting, and recovers much of the ransom paid by Plectrude to Chilperic. He will remain undefeated until his death 25 years later.

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