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William III and II (An Orange Dynasty)

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William III and II
King William III by Thomas Murray.jpg
William III by Thomas Murray
Prince of Orange
Reign 4 November 1650 –

21 March 1712

Predecessor William II
Successor Johan Philip
Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Overijssel, Artois, Hainault, Flanders, Luxemburg, Calais, Cambrai and Walloon-Flanders
Reign July 1672 - 21 March 1712
Predecessor William II
Successor Johan Philip
King of England, Scotland and Ireland (more ...)
Reign 13 February 1689 –

21 March 1712

Coronation 11 April 1689
Predecessor James II and VII
Successor William IV and III
Co-Monarch Mary II of England
Spouse Mary II of England
Issue
William IV and III
Johan Philip
House House of Orange-Nassau
Father William II
Mother Mary, Princess Royal
Born 4 November 1650
[N.S.: 14 November 1650]
Binnenhof, The Hague
Died 21 March 1712 (aged 61)
[N.S.: 1 April 1712]
Ghent, Flanders
Burial Westminster Abbey, London
Signature WilliamIII Sig.svg
Religion Protestantism
William III (Dutch: Willem III; 4 November 1650 –21 March 1712) was a sovereign Prince of Orange of the House of Orange-Nassau, and from 1672, he governed as Stadtholder William III of Orange (Dutch: Willem III van Oranje) over Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, and Overijssel of the Dutch Republic. From 1689 he reigned as William III over England and Ireland, and is known as King William II of Scotland. After 1706, he governed as Stadtholder in Artois, Hainault, Flanders, Luxemburg, Calais, Cambrai and Walloon-Flanders. In what became known as the "Glorious Revolution", on 5 November 1688, William invaded England in an action that ultimately deposed King James II and won him the crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland. In the British Isles, William ruled jointly with his wife, Mary II of England, until his death on 21 March 1712 after which Mary became sole ruler. The period of their joint reign is often referred to as "William and Mary".

A Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic king of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith. Largely because of that reputation, William was able to take the British crowns when many were fearful of a revival of Catholicism under James. William's victory over James at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by the Orange Order. His reign marked a stark decrease of the personal rule over Parliament, although he did maintain control over a number of aspects of government in a style many historians would later call the "enlightened absolutism".

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