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The Failure of the American Revolution (1776-1781)
The revolution counted on Benjamin Franklin to win over the French.
As this happened, in the Thirteen Colonies, the colonists and their "Continental Army" led by well-recognized George Washington, defeated impressively British forces all around the colonies- they were known as the "Tall Washington Army" by the lower classes, their number grew to 25,000 as many joined the army, to liberate themselves from the English, as they have been imposed heavy laws upon them.
The army, though, quickly grew problems. They were poorly equipped, and in France, Benjamin Franklin was unable to reach an agreement with France. Supplies from Spain were caught by British Naval Forces. (Which Spain and Britain acted like as if nothing happened, as the King of Spain believed it was a huge embarrassment.)
British forces arrived in Boston in 1779; they numbered 31,000, while British forces in Georgia had a force of 2,000. This put the Continental Army at a difficult spot, as winter came in. The two armies in the north, went through a game of tag, described by modern historians, launching raids on each other but the British Army never was able to draw Washington's Army to a decisive battle, and head figures of the Revolution fled from British capture. Benjamin Franklin was killed by a British spy in 1779 in France, never reaching a final deal with France.
The year of 1780 saw a great deal of benefit for the Continental Army, as they saw a surplus of supplies from the Dutch, who publicly sided with Britain in the Revolution, but privately aided the rebels. They also were able to defeat British forces easily in the southern colonies, but unable to distract the main British Army, which was still superior to them in large terms.
Artemus Wills was made leader of the Continental Army, after Washington fell ill after being out over watching his troops too much. Wills let the Continental Army be trapped by the larger army of the British in Yorktown; the Battle of Yorktown was the bloodiest battle of the Revolution, and would the bloodiest of North America for the years to come. British forces inflicted a decisive victory over the Continental Army, killing 16,000, capturing 5,000, while having few casualties themselves, and captured later those weeks many head-figures of the Revolution. On 1781, the American Revolution ended, straining Britain of much money.
After the revolution ended, Britain repealed many harsh laws on the colonist, and also allowed the colonist to expand to the west- which had been previously denied, which would force Britain to waste resources against formerly- Indian allies, to appease to their own colonists.
Napoleonic Wars: Portugal Invaded (1808)
Portugal as Napoleon said "is becoming a nuisance," after the failed Spanish Offensive into Portugal due to the aid of the British Army, constant raids on the Spanish border which worsened the spirit of the War-Weary Spanish, and last but not least, the most annoying factor to the Emperor was the decently sized Portuguese Fleet, and let us not forget, how the important Portugal was for Britain as a trading partner.
In 1808, a Spanish-French army called Armée du Portugal under General Junot, numbering 97,000 men invaded Portugal, and after four brief battles Portugal was defeated by the superior logistically French Army. The Portuguese Royal Family fled to the colony in South America, Brazil, in which Dom Joao VI declared himself king of Portugal and Brazil, and vowed Portugal would return to Portugal-Brazil.
Portugal was entirely annexed, forever a part of Spain, it would takes decades for Portuguese Unrest to settle, but it would. The remains of Portugal would live on in Brazil, seeking to return home in the future.
The War of the Fifth Coalition: Austria's Defeat (1809-1810)
The Austrians bravely entered the war with Britain who has stood alone since Russia went to a temporary peace with France, on April 10th, 1809.
But the lack of either Russia, who Napoleon worked closely in Diplomacy to isolate, or Prussia. which were still hurt by the War of the Fourth Coalition, refusing to join Austria's revolt resulted in a disastrous war for Austria. It was shrewd diplomacy and vague promises by Britain to fill the Austrian's own treasury with British funds
It is wrong, however, to say the Austrians were completely drawn into this futile war because of greed. They wanted to avenge the memory of Austerlitz that had haunted the Austrian nation for nearly four years. A series of reforms and improvements in the Austrian army gave the Austrian leaders false hope that a victory would be easy. Strategists for the Austrians noted a number of pros for their side. With the majority of French soldiers at the coastline and elsewhere, the border with Bavaria was quite thin. Certainly the reforms had strengthened the Austrian confidence and they were eager to have another shot at the French.
Austrian military leaders hoped for a series of quick blows to the French that would "bring France to trip" in a favorable peace for them. They were quite wrong on a number of counts: The army in Bavaria had been reinforced with veterans from Portugal and the French were highly aware of the Austrian reforms. The short war occurred in the crushing Battle of Wagram in which the Austrian army was nearly wiped out. The Treaty of Schönbrunn was concluded on October 14th 1809 which gave 75 million francs to France as well as much of the Adriatic coastline.
It was a total humiliation for the Hapsburgs. This would hurt Austria for the rest of its history, as it suddenly became a landlocked nation, and its military was forced to be lowered drastically, in Netherlands, people began protesting at the start of the short war, and the poor ruling of Napoleon's brother who occupied the throne there, which led to the annexation of the small nation to the massive, ever-growing French Empire.
The Battle for the Channel! The French and British Fleets Clash! (1812)
It is said Napoleon wanted to make a peace with Britain at the beginning of 1812. And he was certainly in the position to do so. Russia was reluctant to join either side, meaning they would be no threat to France, Austria was still too shocked by the recent war, and Prussia was influenced by Napoleon's diplomatic skills, including his marriage to the Prussian Princess, though it did not make Prussia pro-French, it restricted Prussia, and plus, the Prussian Generals highly doubted they could defeat France with the lack of support.
Meaning France was in a perfect location for negotiations. But a popular tale in France said that Napoleon traveled to the English Channel in 1811 with his young and growing son Napoleon II, that Napoleon had decided to think Britain would not only continue to weigh him, and restrict him and make Napoleon lose his grip on Europe, but his heir and his heir, and so on, would still be threatened by Britain. And so Napoleon famously said to his son "Never give in to an enemy that you know will always make you weaker," which would become a signature quote to the Bonapartes for decades.
The British Navy was all that stood in between Napoleon and the British Isles, and so Napoleon ordered a massive Naval Program, he was content on completely conquering Britain, and vowed to his generals the British Empire "shall lose its home".
The French Naval Program led by Admiral St. Vincent, and with funds from the large French Vault, Spanish, Lusitania, Italian, and finally some Ottoman Contributions, and not to forget patriotic funds by French Citizens, Napoleon declared the Continental Naval System, by mid 1812 in the Mediterranean Sea, dominated by the French Navy due to British Over extension, this "Continental Naval System" numbered 99 Warships, a number that is debated by many people, and is said to have passed many people's expectations by much.
The British caught word of this movements, but hesitated, they were over extended, and there other similar massive naval build up in other areas, a estimated of 12 Warships were in Spanish Territory along the Atlantic, two more French fleet, one in the Brittany Region and Normandy, both having 12 Warships.
This act was made by much work, and much hiring, by the end of the program, France's vaults were significantly smaller but so where those of Spain and other nations.
The Mediterranean Sea gained dominance over the small island of Gibraltar, the British fleet there were overwhelmed, British communication was cut by Spanish raiding, this allowed the massive Fleet to head upwards, not giving Britain time to prepare, when Britain caught word of this monstrous fleet in which size has never been seen before, Britain mobilized, and prepared to meet the French Fleet in the cost of France, but stopped, as suddenly French and Spanish Fleets in the Atlantic Launched, numbering in total 135 Warships, such a size never seen, of course, there are some cases, but never has it been 135 full-fledged Warships, Britain only mobilized 73 Warships.
The British fleet planned to destroy the 24 Warships in the cost of France first, and so they did, as the battle began, it became one-sided, as the British sent only 24 Warships against those 24 Warships, with only five British ships lost, while French Ships were completely sunken or retreated.
The Continental Fleet met with the Spanish Fleet, The Continental Fleet now numbered 116 Warships, still a massive numbered, and British numbers now numbered 68. The two massive fleets met in the English Channel, due to British unwillingness to move from the Channel which would give Napoleon's Transport Ship a path to the Isles.
English and French Privateers alike joined their respective sizes, British numbers rose to 79, while Continental numbers rose to 129.
The battle was the deadliest naval conflict in history, with 40,000 men dead, and in result, barely a French victory. The 79 British Ships were reduced to either sunk, burned, or forced to flee battle, the French lost 90 ships, suffering the most casualties, now this Continental Navy was down to 26, while 13 of those ships were heavily damaged, it was a show of British Strength in the sea, and could only be overpowered in numbers.
Now though, the path was clear, the rest of the British Navy was too over extended to mobilize, blockaded fleets like the formerly Dutch Fleet broke out, and likewise with many other nations.
And now, French Transport Ship moved across the Channel, French Warships cleared a landing path. And the long, campaign for the Isles began.
Napoleon's Campaign for the British Isles (1812-1813)
The defeat of the British Isles let way for forces to land in the south. Initial panic and horror spread through the Royal Family, Army, and Citizenry alike. George III took control of the situation in a meaningful way to the compliments of historians, making the Royal Family flee up to the north to Scotland, as he refused to leave London.
Napoleon had amassed a massive force, around 510,000 men in total, though only 230,000 were the official force, the rest being reserves overseas. Of the 280,000 reserves, 50,000 landed in Weymouth, 50,000 thousand in Portsmouth, while the main force landed in Hassing. The landings were unopposed French success was high. Various smaller landings happened, a landing of 2,000 men was stopped, but this was overshadowed by Napoleon's arrival to the front lines.
Napoleon wrote "I will not have a surrender from Britain, I will strip them away their independence, and force them to run." Patriotism was high on both sides, as opposite national propaganda spoke ill of each other. British forces massed, a force of 420,000 men, 187,000 being the only actual soldiers, the rest militia from London, which was evacuating. British High Command was in chaos, ambitious generals argued with each other until George III intervened giving command to nobody but instead gave a joint-command between British Generals. The Battle of London which was 250,000 British soldiers, mainly militia, faced Napoleon's 200,000 in the south of London.
The battle began on an early morning, it was a sunny day. Napoleon's love for cannons proved strong, as there were over 329 artillery pieces, while the British had only a hundred. Yes, Napoleon's soldiers were outnumbered by a considerable margin, but Napoleon saw no way to defeat. The British Army took position by a riverbank which had various hills on their side which overlooked the river. The French would be forced to charge across the river, or go by the side of it and be very vulnerable to cannons and cavalry. Napoleon drew his plans. He drew his forces up to the river, covering them with hills on his own side of the river, with French Cannons outgunning the British ones. British Generals quickly realized if their cannons were destroyed Napoleon would have a third hand, while they would lose on of their own hands. They drew their cannons back along with their main line infantry, deciding not to attack Napoleon as they agreed that Napoleon wanted them to attack his well-defended location. Napoleon though thought they would not take the challenge, and now had a clear path up the river. He slowly moved his forces up north, his cannons still overlooking. He let his left flank seemingly weak, purposely making soldiers spread rumors about a series of defections on their left flank. British Generals caught wind of this and sent a force around the river bank in secrecy, the force mainly cavalry. This idea was challenged by Arthur Wellesley, but he was over voiced by other generals.
The 2000 British Force was very surprised to be ambushed by Napoleon's legendary "Old Guard" of the Imperial Regiment, who they themselves used their own artillery peace, this British force was destroyed, and survivors captured, the French in the skirmish only had twenty artillery pieces and 300 members of the Old Guard.
The initial skirmish was morale booster for the French Army, the British Forces now preparing themselves on other hills behind the hills that overlooked the river were terrified. French Forces completely made the cross over the river, with few British Interference. Napoleon looked at the tight British Defense in horror, he almost decided to wait until a French Force of 90,000 reached the battlefield in five days. But he drew other plans. Legions of Spanish, Germans, Portuguese, and Nordic Countries served under British Command, those are many men who volunteered for their country or out of plain distaste for the Emperor. He sent secret diplomats to legions of French and German legionnaire who had a deep hatred for the Emperor which is why they fought under England. Napoleon wanted the 4,100 French-German Legionnaires to defect to the French side, and initially worked with bribes, but later was forced to promise political positions in the German States and in France itself.
Although this plot of Napoleon would have worked, it is unknown what leader of the legionnaires turned away from him. It is said to be a legionnaire of Spanish-German Heritage, which famous French Myths today tell of a man who was as smart as Napoleon and resisted the temptation to defect over to Napoleon. History does not know who told the British High Command of the French Diplomacy with Legionnaires, but they found out due to a source. French and Germans suspected of conspiracy in the legion were executed.
Napoleon was frustrated by his failure but he gained a win. Other French and German legionnaires began to drift from British soldiers, as there are reports of frequent racism in the British Army against Germans and French. Napoleon spread news of the 'unholy' execution of the French-British Soldiers, and rose his soldiers morale by calling the British "racist who can't accept help from other nationalities." These speeches, would spark a series of French and British Racism for decades to come.
On the third day of few fighting, all across southern England, British forces were being turned back by other smaller French armies in the south, as these armies began occupying major cities in the south, while a force of 59,000 was moving up to Wales. In Europe, Prussia and Austria watched with horror as Britain's safe seawall had been breached, and there were even Prussian calls in Parliament to go for war while the French were in Britain. But Russia's watchful gaze discouraged this.
In France there was an eruption of national pride as Napoleonic Propaganda talked of great French success and cowardly British running away. The Navy made up by various nations which barely took control of the channel blockaded Britain.
In the front to the south of London Napoleon finally made his move. It was a quick hit and strike, using excessive man powers he quickly moved his cannons up the hill facing the British Cannons and soldiers, the British dug on trenches and using wires to protect themselves were surprised by how quickly French Artillery fired. In five hours, no single French soldier or British soldier charged, but it was a battle between French and British Artillery, which was eventually won by the French. Napoleon's soldiers pushed, forth, the British defenses were struck down by cannons, it then erupted to a bloody battle as French soldiers reached the British, by the end of the day, 74,000 French troops were killed. British losses were 206,000. The rest fleeing, captured, or missing. The force rallied under Arthur Wellsley and fled north, evacuating London with the King and Prime Minister who refused to leave England. Meanwhile much of the Royal Family was in Scotland, ready to flee to the Americas with the remains of the British Fleet up north.
Horror happened, as Napoleon took London, he was forced to bombard the city was the city rioted, Napoleonic Propaganda excused this as a tolerable act, pointing out this was war, but much of the world cried out after 81,421 civilians died due to bombardment. Regardless, the main British Force was defeated, rallying up northern England. In Ireland, there were shouts of independence from the United Kingdom. Weeks passed with French advances from all sides.Irish Rebellion Movements began much to the horror of Britain. As the French kept forcing up, Marshal Ney attacking Wales, Napoleon up the east cost, and other reputable Marshals in the center, and the Irish Rebellions it became increasingly horrible for the British Army to counter attack. The British did win a battle against the French Forces in the center against French Marshak Francois Bastien, inflicting 4,391 casualties on the 12,000 French Force in the area, while the British only had a thousand troops. But that victory could do little. The main British Army which was stationed in London had been defeated, civilian protests and riots were met with cruelty from French Marshals. Especially the army of French Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout.
Now entering the year 1813, it had been almost a year since the British defeat in the South of London, Napoleon had not once returned to his mainland, he was visited by his growing son Napoleon II three times though. British resistance was high, especially of those in big cities, a fiery resistance that would not be burned out for decades to come. Napoleon in the beginning of the year had occupied all of Wales finally, and was quickly reaching the Scottish Border. The British Army had 321,000 men, mainly militia, the French in the south had gathered a total of 251,000, due to many soldiers staying behind to occupy.
George III, the King of the United Kingdoms, made a decision that would impact the course of history. He immediately ordered for the Royal Family, and some British Generals to flee from England. Arthur Wellsley was given 10,000 British Regular Troops and ordered to leave in the rallying British Fleet to the Thirteen Colonies.
"Old chap, we've lost the war sorry to disappoint. But not in the colonies." George III was said to have said to Arthur Wesley's objections. Now the 311,000 British soldiers prepared for defenses all around Scotland. Initially, they did won some skirmishes but were overshadowed by the loss of the main force against French Marshal Ney. By the end of the year of 1813, in November, British soldiers had retreated up all the way north, the harsh terrain, woods and mountains at first slowed down Napoleon's troops, but by the end of year, British Morale was low by lack of supplies, the leaving of the Royal Family stung their pride as many believed their own leaders thought they could not win. George III unconditionally surrendered.
Triumph of the Continental System- Napoleon's Victory in Europe (1814)
Britain and France met not in the traditional diplomatic grounds, but on Ireland. It was a surprise at first for George III to meet on British Territory. The revolt in Ireland had the support of the few, and the brave, but few British troops stopped the revolt in the most peaceful way possible, but 13,000 casualties were counted between Irish Rebels and British troops. Though most casualties were Irish.
In the negotiations, George III and Napoleon themselves showed up. Each to lead their own negotiations and talking. Although George III himself unconditionally surrendered, meaning France could as it pleases, he could still give his opinion. George III believed that Napoleon would impose a heavy demand of money, strip Britain of some of its colonies, and obviously limit the navy. But the terms of peace surprised the King.
- The Annexation of England was to be unavoidable.
- The disbanding of the United Kingdom.
- All Monarchy and Government Members were to be exiled or executed.
- The government of Scotland was to be drastically remodeled but remain independent under French Protection.
- Wales would become an independent publicly client-kingdom of France. The government will have a new Royal Family.
- Colonies in Africa, Australia, India, and all other areas but the Western Hemisphere were given to France, South American Territories were given to Spain, islands in the Caribbean as well were given to Spain. Territories in Central America were also given to Spain. The Thirteen Colonies and Canada were given to the Royal Family.
- Ireland would become an independent state.
The last point was only made by George III's furious debating, and in the end, the North American British Colonies would be all that remains of the British Empire. The process of transaction of colonies would take years, George III would become a prisoner of war in Scotland and would die there, France annexed England into the Napoleonic Empire, Wales and Scotland would become puppet states, Ireland an independent nation, which would suffer unrest for much time due to unhappy British and Irish populace alike. England will suffer a similar fate for the rest of the century, with countless revolts every year, a 100,000 French Army occupying the country. Englishmen will never accept the French until the 20th century, in which they will slowly become "Frenchized."
The World After the Napoleonic Wars (1815-1820)
The years 1815-1820 would be the year the world would recognize French-Bonaparte Dominance. From Austria which had faced Napoleon in all but one of all the Wars of the Coalition against Napoleon to the Shogun of Japan, the world was astounded by the sound collapse of Britain. The remains of Portugal which was now in Brazil, negotiated peace with France in 1815, but lost all of its African Colonies. It would take up until 1818 when former British now French Colonies would accept the fact that France was now the colonies owner. Many areas like Australia and India would resist the French, but brutal occupation suppressed this.
The majority of the resistance was in the British Isles themselves, it would not be for a century until the British People would become "Frenchized" the popular term given to France attempting to undermine British culture with French culture.
With the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Spain had major financial problems, colonies in the Americas, which Spain relied on cried out for freedom, Japan in the Pacific was slowly entering the world stage, leaving isolation, Russia slowly drifted from France, and once again closing itself with Austria and Prussia, the sick man of Europe- the Ottomans were also having all kinds of problems, racial, territorial, militaristic, economical, diplomatic, all kinds of problems. The French Economy boomed in 1819, even with the heavy occupation of England, the new colonies and now dominance in the sea gave France the status of world power.
As Napoleon grew ill he made his son his official heir, growing him to be the ideal Emperor, as he knew he would not live forever. Napoleon was later recognized as "Napoleon the Great" the man who brought Europe to its knees. There were other things to note. Oversea, in the Americas.
The remains of the British government had problems in the North American Colonies. When the new King of the now-dead United Kingdom arrived in Boston with 10,000 regiments of troops, the rest of the Royal Family, General Arthur Wesley, they were surprised. There was major problems with the government in the Thirteen Colonies, protest from the civilians, assassination attempts, with all that it took time to negotiate and wait for the news of George's III unconditional surrender to allow George IV, the new King, to take control of the North American Colonies.
"It could be worse." is what George IV said when in 1820 to his advisors as he was now the de facto leader of the remains of the North American British Colonies. The United Kingdom and Great Britain were non-existent, meaning he ruled a nation with practically no name. His nameless nation spread to the middle of the continent.
After the American Revolution, many taxes were taken off from the colonist, and they were allowed to expand to the west. This made the natives enemies of the the British, which forced them to spend money against the natives. Two confederations of Native Americans stayed strong, resisting colonist to the point colonist went around the two confederations; the Iroquois, and Cherokee.
The two Confederation would resist British influence until the British collapsed from Napoleon's invasion, and it would resist the nameless nation for a long time.
George IV named the country New England, by the world in a short matter of time. Setting up a monarchy, he and the royal family became royalty once more, supporters from the Isles arrived, a few thousand citizens and soldiers, though mostly civilians. The Colonist in the Thirteen Colonies responded with some violence but accepted the fact, deciding they did not have the strength to stand up to the new Monarchy, remembering the failed revolt decades back. Though some people like George Washington, and some other ideal members of the failed revolt, had fled way west - and were lost from the eyes of world. Though their descendants would not.
The new country immediately had problems. Financial and diplomatic. First the native tribes must be handled sooner or later, the nation had little money for a standing army and a large navy which the English cherishes so much in the United Kingdom. But it saw a wave patriotism. Majority of them from Canada, thought a significant amount from the Thirteen Colonies, saw a wave of patriotism of expansion and power, in 1820 New England had a standing army of 20,000, and 100,000 in cases of conscription, the remains of the Royal Navy formed the New Royal Navy (NRN) which boasted a 107-Gun-Ship, two 58-Gun-Ships, a 48-Gun-Ship and nine smaller vessels with cannons ranging from twenty to seven, including three of 38-Gun-Ship which were produced in 1818. This navy and army were small, yet powerful and had minimal wage, mainly out of patriotism to the surprise of many other nations,
Donations from Russia mainly, would give New England a healthy economical start, as pioneers set off across the oceans and across the lands to the Pacific Cost, trading furs and metals in India and in Native American Tribes, to think a nation could accomplish so little time would give many applauds from historians, leaders worldwide, and even from Napoleon himself.
Anglo-Spanish War of America (1821-1823)
Asking any man in 1818 if this new nation, the descendant of the United Kingdom, New England, could ever defeat a major colonial superpower like Spain in a war and the man would have been called a fool. Though if the man asked that to a politician in 1821, and there would be much thought. That was how drastically New England improved. Better roads, encourages of expansion and trade throughout the world, a wave of patriotism of racial superiority even came up, even with the common folk, "what the world does a Briton can do it better.". The sudden change of heart in the Thirteen Colonies raised many eyebrows, so did the sudden wave of patriotism.
The New Englanders, as they would be called, still called themselves British or English, and the two names would be what would refer to the citizens of these new nations.
As New England had a sudden economic boom with a tsunami of patriotism, Spain was sunk in the pure hate of the government and the massive financial problem. In 1818, Simon Bolivar of Venezuela stirred up a campaign of independence in Venezuela, though his personality scared away many independentist, even with that, Simon Bolivar almost liberated Venezuela, but escaped into hiding in the Caribbean.
In Argentina, a wave of individual patriotism stirred up after they had defeated the British Invasion in 1804, and this brought violence across the south cone of America. These two events were the few things Spain was forced to endlessly spend on. There were constant pirates in Asia attacking its Asian Colonies, it acted aggressively against the Natives in the Frontier, the aggressiveness proved effective to stop Native intrusion to Spanish lands, but it was costly.
Spain's army in the Americas was three times larger than the army in Spain, a standing army of two-hundred thousand they proved effective to stop any independent movements many South Americans so wanted. Yet that massive army in peace time is what primarily caused the nation to be in the verge of bankrupt.
France let Spain have financial aid, yet did not provide military aid. Because by then, Napoleon I had tragically passed away, his son, Napoleon II, young, 18 yet brilliant refused to lend Spain French Troops, due to his own personal racism against the Spanish people for an incident when he was a child, and his devious personality which would make him a shrewd diplomat and a intimidating leader.
In what would be one of the biggest conspiracies in the history of the world, Napoleon II planned to spark a war between New England, and Spain. The revelation of this conspiracy would be released to the public in the year 1991, more than a century after it would happen.
New England was a rival with Spain, it had claimed much land in the Pacific and other major areas, English settlers sometimes settled in Spanish colonies, or areas nearby, some even were able to settle in the majestic Pacific Ocean, which so few European and Englishmen had seen. This started the tension between Spain and New England, New England's unwillingness to publicly discourage settlers to expand frustrated the Spanish Monarch.
To think New England could develop so fast baffled the Spanish Government. In mid 1820, there was much bluff-callings from both sides, though many Spanish bluffs were caught red-handed, due to the Spanish Military Forces being spread thin, most of them in New Granada and Rio de Plata, while New England's forces were concentrated to its large colonial neighbor in the south.
What set off the war which would be in New England known as "The First Step of Redemption" and in Spain it would be recognized as the "War of Disgrace would be various things. First of all the rivalry of expansion between Spain and New England on the vast frontier. Second, the suspecting of Spain selling the Cherokee and Iroquois weapons and materials, which New England was trying to politically and economically dominate. The third and arguably largest event would be the assassination of a New English Count in Louisiana by a French-Spanish Citizen. (Louisiana was taken from the French amidst the Napoleonic Wars.) The citizen though was, in fact, hired by Napoleon II for his schemes.
The fourth was the lack of communication due to the large stretch of land that divided the Spanish and English Government from their armies, who frequently collided in skirmishes and claimed soil in the name of their countries. George IV, encouraged by Arthur Wellsey, and with surprisingly a popular opinion of many Englishmen, declared war on Spain in July 21, 1821.