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Washington D.C. was the capital of the United States of America from 1800-1864. It became a free-city state after the War of Southern Independence. It lies within the District of Columbia.
Capital of the United States
In the Compromise of 1790, the Federal Government was to be set up along the Potomac River. After 10 years of construction, the Federal Government permanently set up in the Federal District of Columbia. When the Adams family moved in, Abigail Adams called the small town "a very dirtiest hole." In 1801, the final separation from the states of Maryland and Virginia took place, and the District was put under exclusive control of the Federal Government. The city wasn't very popular, and never grew above a large town. Most of its residence were government officials living there. On August 24th-25th, during the War of 1812, the British burned the city to the ground, but were driven out by a tornado that touched down. The city recovered, but the Capitol building wouldn't be completed until 1868. In the 1840s, Virginia retro-ceded their land. In 1850, slave trade was abolished. At the outbreak of the War of Southern Independence, Washington grew from a large town to a sizable city, becoming a fortress. In 1862, slavery was abolished as part of the Compensated Emancipation Act. In 1863, when the south won the Battle of Gettysburg, and later took the city of Baltimore, Maryland, US president Abraham Lincoln brought in more troops, and prepared the city for a siege. After the 3 month Siege of Washington (September 1st-December 1st), The Union lines broke, and Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson led his Stonewall brigade into the city. Lincoln surrendered the city the next day. During this time of Confederate occupation, an interim capital was set up in New York City, where Congress met for the next few months. Under Confederate occupation, the city was under martial law, and a strict curfew was set up. Any blacks were enslaved, but would be freed after the signing of the Treaty of Washington. The Capital of the United States was moved to New York City provisionaly.