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War of the Spanish Succession (Fiat Iustitia)

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War of the Spanish Succession
Fiat Iustitia
Date 1701 - 1714
Location Europe, North America, South America
Belligerents
Grand Alliance:

Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806) Holy Roman Empire

Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors) Great Britain
Statenvlag Dutch Republic
Savoie flag Piedmont-Savoy
Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1701-1750) Prussia
Estandarte de Carlos III Habsburg Spain
Flag Portugal (1667) Portugal

Party of the Two Crowns:

Royal Standard of the King of France France
Bandera de España 1701-1760 Spanish Monarchy
Flag of Bavaria (lozengy) Bavaria
Black St George's Cross Cologne
Mantua Flag 1575-1707 (new) Duchy of Mantua
(until 1708)

Commanders and leaders
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806) Leopold I

Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806) Joseph I
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806) Charles VI
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806) Eugene of Savoy
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806) Margrave of Baden
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806) Count Starhemberg
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806) Elector of Hanover
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors) Queen Anne
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors) Duke of Marlborough
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors) Earl of Galway
Statenvlag Anthonie Heinsius
Statenvlag Count Ouwerkerk
Savoie flag Duke of Savoy
Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1701-1750) Frederick I
Flag Portugal (1667) Marquis of Minas

Royal Standard of the King of France Louis XIV

Royal Standard of the King of France Duke of Villars
Royal Standard of the King of France Duke of Vendôme
Royal Standard of the King of France Duke of Berwick
Royal Standard of the King of France Duke of Villeroi
Royal Standard of the King of France Duke of Boufflers
Royal Standard of the King of France Duke of Tallard
Royal Standard of the King of France Duke of Orléans
Royal Standard of the King of France Count of Tessé
Royal Standard of the King of France Count of Marsin †
Bandera de España 1701-1760 Philip V
Bandera de España 1701-1760 Marquis of Bay
Bandera de España 1701-1760 Marquis of Villadarias
Flag of Bavaria (lozengy) Elector of Bavaria
Black St George's Cross Joseph Clemens

Battles
 

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701 – 1714) was a major European conflict of the early eighteen century, triggered by the death of the infirm and childless Charles II in 1700, the last Habsburg King of Spain. Charles II had ruled over a large active empire which spanned the globe, and the question of who would succeed him had long troubled ministers throughout European capitals. Attempts to solve the problem by partitioning (dividing) the empire between the eligible candidates from the royal Houses of France (Bourbon), Austria (Habsburg), and Bavaria (Wittelsbach) ultimately failed, and on his deathbed Charles II fixed the entire Spanish inheritance on Philip, Duke of Anjou, the second grandson of King Louis XIV of France. With Philip ruling in Spain Louis XIV had secured great advantages for his dynasty, but to some statesmen a dominant House of Bourbon was seen as a threat to European stability, and jeopardized the 'Balance of Power'.

Background

By the late 1690's the question of Spanish succession had been brought into focus, with the declining health of the current king, Charles II, a Habsburg king noted for his extensive physical, intellectual, and emotional disabilities, along with his consequent ineffectual rule. Under the rule of Charles II the nation of Spain had devolved from a powerful European power to one less able to enforce hegemony over the continent of Europe. The Spanish Empire however, a collection of numerous territories across the globe, including much of the Americas, remained intact. In addition to the Spanish realm on the peninsula, the nation of Spain also included the Balearic Islands, the Spanish Netherlands, Milan, Sicily, Naples, Sardinia, Finale, and the State of Presidi on the Tuscan coast. Including its overseas territories, the Spanish Empire included the Philippines, Spanish West Indies, Florida, and much of North and South America. Despite the overall decline of the Spanish Empire, its colonial empire remained the largest in the world, and highly active and influential in Europe and on the global level.

In 1665 king Philip IV of Spain died, and was succeeded by his son Charles II, despite being a physically weak individual incapable of having children. By the time of his ascension he was the last remaining male Spanish Habsburg, having survived much longer than anyone had expected. As a result of Charles II's lack of heir, Spanish statesmen and the other nation's of Europe sought to solve the problem of Charles II's succession before his dead, to avoid a large scale war over the Spanish throne. No single heir could be agreed upon however, with the two most predominate rival for succession being the Bourbon King Louis XIV of France, and the Austrian Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I. Both men were of sons-in-law to Philip IV of Spain and grandsons of Philip III, making each of their claims equally valid. Both claimants knew that the vast inheritance of Spain would greatly increase the power of either France or Austria, and both nations fiercely perused the Spanish throne.

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