Taking place twelve years after the end of the last major European war, the War of the French Succession had its origins in the breakdown of relations between the King of France, Louis XVI, and his nobles who had been made drastically more empowered during the region of his father. With the incumbent king attempt to reign in their capability to control the state (in affect, attempt to return to the absolutism of his grandfather, Louis XIV) he embittered most nobles who had fought long during the past half-century in attempts to decentralise France. With their monarchs positions regarding their strengths in mind, many nobles began to plot with the exiled Philip Bourbon, the former King of Spain who had promised the nobles expanded powers of governance, a swift coup d'état that would overthrow the their 'tyrannical' incumbent king.
On 5 April 1737, nobles and their remaining personal militias stormed the royal palace at Versailles, sacking it as soldiers under their commander simultaneously sent Paris into lockdown after detaining the King's ministers of the city. The coup was entirely successful except for the fact that the militia could not find nor capture Louis XVI who had escaped with his family and servants to Amiens, after which Philip was invited back to France after 12 years and proclaimed Philip V, the King of France.
Following his flight to Amiens, Louis XVI was granted asylum in England on the request of William IV who had (despite past transgressions between their states) been grateful for the economic freedom granted to English and Scottish merchants in his kingdom, something now seen at threat with Philip V (whom England had waged war against at the end of the Fifteen Years War) on the throne. In an attempt to reconcile relations with a former ally, the Holy Roman Empire, William's pleas to reform their 'Grand Alliance' went unheeded as Joseph II had moved away from supporting English in previous years, fearful of its overwhelming economic strength granted by the Treaty of Trier.
After the outbreak of full hostilities in 1737 after a series of naval battles, William declaring war on France after reluctantly deciding to push Louis' claim on his former kingdom; the Habsburgs quickly moving to side with France on the belief that Louis returning to his throne would upset the balance of power in Europe by adversely extending the English sphere of influence. Soon after, pre-war alliances fell into place as more battles flared up the continent, nations like Sweden and Russia taking the respective sides of France and England in order to extend their own power.
After several years and a number of battles indecisive and sanguinary battles (particularly the largest encounter of the war, the Battle of Gesves), the nations of Europe began to edge closer and closer to peace as their governments slowly became disenchanted with the loss of men and capital to an inconclusive conflict. As a result, most nations signed treaties of peace by 1744 with the English and France camps continuing the struggle until 1745 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris (which granted Philip's son Charles the throne of France); all treaties signed to bring peace having rearranged the territorial landscape of Europe and the colonial empires.