The Republic of Wales is a sovereign state in north western Europe and part of the island of Britain, bordered by England to its east, the Irish Sea to its north and west, and the Bristol Channel to its south. It had a population of 3,374,012 in 2015, and has a total area of 20,779 square kilometres. Its capital and largest city is Cardiff, located in the south-east of the country. The state shares its only land border with England, otherwise being surrounded by the Irish Sea and Anglo-Welsh Channel. Wales is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The Senedd (Senate) serves as Wales' unicameral parliament, with the President serving as a largely ceremonial head of state. The Prime Minister is the head of government, elected by the Senedd and commissioned by the President.
A sense of welsh national conciousness had existed since the middle of the 19th century. In 1883 Cymru Fydd was founded, becoming a national independence movement as well as a political party. In 1916, led by David Lloyd George Cymru Fydd declared an independent Welsh Republic, leading to the War of Welsh Independence with England, and ultimately to the formation of a Welsh Republic. Wales was neutral through the Second Great War. Wales joined the European Community in 1973.
War of Independence 1916-1919
The President is the head of state, and is elected for a seven year term by universal suffrage every seven years. The President's role is largely ceremonial, however the President is entrusted with important reserve powers, and plays a key role in government formation.
The Senedd is Wales' unicameral parliament, elected every four years under single transferable vote. The Senedd has 159 members elected from 36 constituencies accross wales.
The President is responsible for comissioning a Prime Minister, who in turn needs to be confirmed by the Senedd.
Teledu Radio Cymru (TRC) has been Wales' national broadcaster since its foundation in 1926.
Public service television broadcasts began in 1958 with the launch of TRC Television.
Private television began in 1981 with the launch of Channel 3