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World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the Eastern War (By most of West Europe), was a global war involving two of the world's most powerful alliances, The Dreifach Pakt and the Grand Coalition. The war began on 1 July 1911 and lasted until 14 January 1915. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in history, taking over 17 000 000 lives, and paving the way for various major political changes and revolutions in almost all of its belligerents.
Prelude to War
Aftermath of the First Balkan War
Following Ataturk's allied campaign against Serbia,
Crisis in China
Uprising in Italian Somaliland (1910)
Worker protests in Russia
Preparations for War
The War Begins
The Eastern Front
July 5th, 1911: When news of Dreifach Pakt involvement came to the farthest reaches of the Grand Coalition, Japan and Russia decided to declare war on China. China was able to easily hold off Japanese Naval Invasions at sea, but suffered heavy losses in the north by Russia, due to the Beiyang Provisional Government and several other secessionist movements.
July 19th, 1911: The Northern Campaign began and lasted until the Treaty of Guangzhou in 1912, when the Chinese Warlords agreed to surrender. In the wake of the Jingang disaster, The KMT decided to join forces with the CCP to keep the Beiyang Government from gaining any further political power within the country. Thus, the Northern Campaign had begun, with the allied cliques drawing foreign aid from both Russia and Japan. Despite this, the Chinese forces, with help from Austria-Hungary and Turkish Republic, proved much greater in strength and morale than the Warlords anticipated. The Beiyang Government was defeated easily and, on August 17, 1912, was forced to sign the Treaty of Guangzhou. However, most historians now speculate that the Beiyang surrender may have been caused by the various war crimes and air raids on farms, committed both by the KMT and the CCP, which choked off Beiyang access to food and other basic resources.
The Middle Eastern Front
The Balkan Theatre
July 2nd, 1911: Being the first countries to enter the war, it as quite subsequent, that The Second Balkan War would take place at the earliest point of World War I. However, fighting between Serbia, and Turkish Republic had gone on 2 years before Serbia's invasion of Greece. Over the next two weeks of the war, Serbian attacks were thrown back with heavy losses, which marked the first major Dreifach Pakt victories of the war and dashed Serbian hopes of a swift victory. As a result, Serbia had to keep sizable forces on the Turkish front, weakening its efforts against Austria-Hungary. When Greek and Austrian forces decided to implement trench and mountain warfare, Serbia was pushed back even further, taking heavy casualties. Not long after, Serbia, Albania and Montenegro were annexed by Austria-Hungary, Greece and Bulgaria in 1914.
The Western Front
July 9th, 1911: Suffering from the aftermath of heavy bombardment from the Austrian Front, and a period of starvation, Russia wasn't able to formerly declare war on the Turkish Republic until July 9.
The African Front
The Pacific Theatre
War in Central Asia
The Beginning of The End
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
After a crippling treaty removed almost all of Russia’s colonies in territories in East Asia and East Europe, Russia’s white government crumbled, allowing Trotsky to easily take control of the country, and form The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Treaty of Sapporo
Japan finally signed the treaty of Sapporo in 1915, which gave China full control over the Philippines, and made Japan fully responsible and accountable for the financial damage done in China. Civil War followed, and Japan's monarchy was toppled. Due to a government change in both Russia and Japan, neither country needed to continue paying reparations. This left Italy outraged.
Treaty of Milan
Italy’s involvement in the war was met with a brief end. The treaty of Milan would grant the Dervish State independance, cede Eritrea to Ethiopia, cede Somaliland to the Turkish Republic and cede Libya and Lombardy to Austria-Hungary.
In late 1816, a separate but related event occurred. A new, viral strain of the flu was observed in the United States and was known as the "Spanish flu". The flu was hypothesized to have originated in east asia, and spread rapidly through continental North America and Central America. The exact number of casualties resulting from the epidemic is unknown but about 10 million people are estimated to have died.