Vulpines, known taxonomically as Vulpes anthropomorphis is the only bipedal species of the genus Vulpes. Anatomically modern-appearing vulpines originated in various continents,at about 150,000 years ago, reaching full behavioral modernity 50,000 years ago.
Vulpines,as well as humans, have a highly developed brain, capable of abstract reasoning, language, introspection, and problem solving. This mental capability, combined with an erect body carriage that frees the hands for manipulating objects, has allowed vulpines to make far greater use of tools only comparable of that of humans. Other higher-level thought processes of vulpines, such as self-awareness, rationality and sapience, are considered to be defining features of what constitutes a "person". However, despite of all the resemblances with humans, vulpines and humans are genetically incompatible.
Like most canines, vulpines are social animals. However, vulpines are adept at utilizing systems of communication for self-expression, the exchange of ideas, and organization. Vulpines,as well as humans, create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families to nations. Social interactions between vulpines have established an variety of values, social norms, and rituals, which together form the basis of vulpine society. With individuals widespread in every continent except Antarctica, vulpines are a cosmopolitan species. As of August 2010[update], the population of vulpines was estimated to be about 2.8 billion.
The English adjective vulpine is a Middle English loan from the Italian vulpino (meaning "of a fox"), ultimately from the Italian volpe "fox" . Use as a noun dates from the 16th century.
The generic name Vulpes is the Latin word for "fox".
Vulpine body types vary substantially. Although body size is largely determined by genes, it is also significantly influenced by environmental factors such as diet and exercise. The average height of an adult vulpine is about 1.5 to 1.8 m (5 to 6 feet) tall, although this varies significantly from place to place. The average mass of an adult vulpine is 54–64 kg (120–140 lbs) for females and 76–83 kg (168–183 lbs) for males. Weight can also vary greatly (e.g. obesity). Unlike other canines, vulpines are capable of fully bipedal locomotion, thus leaving their arms available for manipulating objects using their hands, aided especially by opposable thumbs.
The color of vulpine fur is determined by genes.Vulpine fur colors can range from white to black.Vulpine hair ranges from white to brown to red to most commonly black. This depends on the amount of melanin (an effective sun blocking pigment) in the skin and hair. the skin color normally has no variations because of the fur.Vulpines, like other canines, also have a fully developed tail,usually covered with fur.
Vulpines have proportionately shorter palates and teeth similar to those of humans.Vulpines also have a relatively flat snout,if compared to that of feral foxes. Vulpines have characteristically crowded teeth, with gaps from lost teeth usually closing up quickly in young specimens,as happens with humans.
The vulpine life cycle is similar to that of other placental mammals. The zygote divides inside the female's uterus to become an embryo, which over a period of thirty-eight weeks (9 months) of gestation becomes a fetus. After this span of time, the fully grown fetus is birthed from the female's body and breathes independently as an infant for the first time. At this point, most modern cultures recognize the baby as a person entitled to the full protection of the law.
Compared with other canines, vulpine childbirth is dangerous, as well as humans'. Painful labors lasting twenty-four hours or more are not uncommon and sometimes leads to the death of the mother, or the child. This is because of both the relatively large fetal head circumference (for housing the brain) and the mother's relatively narrow pelvis (a trait required for successful bipedalism, by way of natural selection). The chances of a successful labor increased significantly during the 20th century in wealthier countries with the advent of new medical technologies. In contrast, pregnancy and natural childbirth remain hazardous ordeals in developing regions of the world, with maternal death rates approximately 100 times more common than in developed countries.
In developed countries, infants are typically 3–4 kg (6–9 pounds) in weight and 50–60 cm (20–24 inches) in height at birth. However, low birth weight is common in developing countries, and contributes to the high levels of infant mortality in these regions. Helpless at birth, vulpines continue to grow for some years, typically reaching sexual maturity at 11 to 13 years of age. Females continue to develop physically until around the age of 15, whereas male development continues until around age 18. The vulpine life span can be split into a number of stages: infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, adulthood and old age.
There are few differences in life expectancy around the world. Life expectancy at birth in Greater Austria is 54.8 years for a female and 53.9 for a male, while in Ethiopia, it is 43.3 years for both sexes. While one in twenty Vulpine Europeans is 60 years of age or older, the same happens with Vulpine Africans. Very few vulpines reach 75 years of age or more.
Note;Though not all anthropomorphic species aside of humans have the generic name "Vulpes" in its name (some of them are more related to other canids), all of these species are classified as subspecies of the species Vulpes anthropomorphis.the subspecific name "anthropomorphis" is added to the binomial name of the feral equivalent of the subspecie, exception made to species like the Canis dingo anthropomorphis,which feral equivalent already have a trinomial name.
- Vulpes vulpes anthropomorphis (range: all the continents except Africa and Oceania.)
- Vulpes chama anthropomorphis (range: Southern Africa)
- Alopex lagopus anthropomorphis (range: Scandinavia,Northern Russia,Siberia,Greenland,Northern Canada,Iceland, Faroe Islands)
- Vulpes corsac anthropomorphis (range: Central Asia,Siberia and Mongolia)
- Vulpes zerda anthropomorphis (range: Northern Africa)
- Vulpes cana anthropomorphis (range: Afghanistan)
- Vulpes macrotis anthropomorphis (range: United States and North Mexico)
- Vulpes pallida anthropomorphis (range: Central Africa)
- Cuon alpinus anthropomorphis (range: Southeastern Asia)
- Lycaon pictus anthroopomorphis (range: Central and Southeastern Africa)
- Chrysocyon brachyurus anthropomorphis (range: South America)
- Dusicyon australis anthropomophis (range: Falkland Islands)
- Vulpes ferrilata anthropomorphis (range: Tibet)
- Urocyon cinereoargentus anthropomorphis (range: North America and Caribbean islands)
- Urocyon littoralis anthropomorphis (range: Mexico)
- Urocyon mexicanensis anthropomorphis (range: Mexico)
- Otocyon megalotis anthropomorphis (range: Central Africa)
- Lycalopex culpaeus anthropomorphis (range: Corrientes/Entre Ríos and parts of Argentina)
- Lycalopex fulvipes anthropomorphis (range: Chile)
- Lycalopex griseus anthropomorphis (range: Argentina and Chile)
- Lycalopex gymnocercus anthropomorphis (range: Argentine and Uruguayan Pampas)
- Lycalopex sechaure anthropomorphis (range: Peru and Ecuador)
- Lycalopex vetulus anthropomorphis (range: Brazil)
- Cerdocyon thous anthropomorphis (range: South America)
- Vulpes velox anthropomorphis (range: North and Central America)
- Vulpes rueppelli anthropomorphis (range: Northern Africa)
- Vulpes bengalensis anthropomorphis (range: Indian subcontinent)
- Canis adustus anthropomorphis (range: Southern Africa)
- Canis mesomelas anthropomorphis (range: Eastern Africa)
- Canis aureus anthropomorphic (range: Sub-Saharan Africa)
- Canis dingo anthropomorphis (range: Southeastern Asia and Oceania)
- Canis latrans anthropomorphis (range: North and Central America)
- Canis rufus anthropomorphis (range: North America)
- Canis chanco anthropomorphis (range: Central Asia)
- Canis lycaon anthrpomorphis (range: North America)
- Canis pallipes anthropomorphis (range: Central Asia)