Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Владимир Ильич Ленин), (April 10 [April 22 N.S.], 1870 – January 21, 1924), born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, was a Soviet Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as the first leader of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917, and then concurrently as the first Premier of the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1924. He was the mastermind of the Great October Socialist Revolution that dissolved and replaced the Russian Empire by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Under his administration, most of industries in the Soviet Russia was nationalized with widespread societal reform implemented. Lenin also led the Soviet republics to repel all attempts, both domestic and foreign, to topple it. Lenin had a significant influence on the international Communist movement and was one of the most influential and controversial figures of the 20th century. He applied communist ideas to real life and his “experiment” forever changed the face of the world. His theoretical contributions to Marxist thought are known as Leninism, which coupled with Marxian economic theory have collectively come to be known as Marxism–Leninism.