Although the different cultures would be definable to anyone who actually lived in these Baltic regions, during Roman explorations during the 950's (200's) and 1250's(500's) the regions became known as Livia after the Liv tribes which at the time dominated much of the eastern Baltic coasts.
As the centuries progressed, territory conflicts with the rising Feudal Republic of Novgorod forced the Livian tribes to coalesce and organise, hastening their development. Sophisticated political and administrative subdivisions began forming by the late 19th century (early-mid 12th century). At the time of the Medius Ordeum's bloody incursions in the early to mid 21st century (mid-1200's), there were seven leading counties:
- Igania: Largest in area and most developed of the Livia Inf. region before the Medius Ordeum's attacks, situated in the south. Igania had the second largest standing army before the Virunae-Novgorod territory war 1872-8(1119-25) and was a must have ally in the common defence of the northern Livia areas. Igania had a consistent competition with Virunae, in part causing them to refrain from assisting Virunae in its defence against Novgorod (though Virunae hadn't asked for it anyways). Igania afterwards enjoyed being the most influential on the mainland, but would eventually begin fading in power. Igania grew even larger though after its victory in 1879(1126) over the Nuremkun-Saccala-Mohu alliance where Saccala lost much of its eastern territory and Nuremkun and Mohu capitulated to Iganian rule. The question of when its influence finally fell was known in 2005(1252) when the Medius Ordeum crushed the combined Livian armies and caused a whole lot of havoc for decades.
- Jervia: Landlocked in the central-east, a minor state often submissive to Virunae.
- Virunae: Based in the north-east with substantial coastline, the Virunae were the oldest and had one of the largest armies, but was least advanced of the Livian states. During a territory war with Novgorod 1872-8(1119-25) which it fought alone, several of its eastern cities were eventually ransacked and razed by the Novgorods, many were allowed to escape however to help spread fear. This succeeded, but the many refugees of the cities greatly spread their culture and language to the rest of what was eventually Livia Inf. The language Viruna became a permanent minority while the culture in time grew to a majority, directly influencing the name of independent Livia Inf. to Vironi. Virunae's defeat allowed Novgorod and its ally Muscovy to demand tribute from the county, and also gave the Novgorods confidence in dominating the rest of the Baltic states.
- Revala: Controlling the coast between Virunae and Laanelia which attained the capitulation of the Harjumaa eldarship in 1862(1109). Revala was usually the third most powerful in Livia Inf.
- Saccala: Based on the southern west coast, once the most northern part of the Keivian Rus' control. Ever since its short-lived and controversial permanent alliance with the now-extinct Nuremkun and Mohu states (during Virunae's decline), Igania often invaded in an effort to dissolve the alliance it saw as directed against them. Eventually succeeding in 1879(1126), Saccala was reduced to the weakest of the Livian tribes and continued to suffer attacks from Igania but had somehow managed to survive and remain independent. During Roman rule there were frequent clashes between the two tribes when forced to live peacefully.
- Saaremae: Based on the larger southern island. It was the wealthiest of the Livian states and was confident of its protection from the Medius Ordeum, it had a smaller army than its cousin states and its navy consisted mostly of merchant ships that could be used in battles, only one ship was steam powered and it was personally owned by the line of Saaremae's rulers. Most of the Baltics had heavy economic and political ties to Rome by the 21st century (13th century), their navies were quite small as the Empire's uniformly steam-powered, metal-hulled fleets usually kept the Sea clear of the larger Viking raiding fleets, though battles on land and sea between the Baltic states or Novgorod were not really of Rome's interest.
- Laanelia: Based on the mainland's western coast and controlling the smaller northern Island. Laanelia had a larger navy than Saaremae but the two had a military alliance for most of their history and shared culture, dialect, and currency. Laanelia often raided Novgorod merchant ships, in part accounting for two notable sea wars between Novgorod and the alliances of the Baltics.
- The first, during 1914-7(1161-4) was a minor loss for Laanelia and its allies. Laanelia lost the region of Lahiit Mahir (Lantania in Latin) in the north; Revala lost a number of minor islands along its coast; and Virunae's border with Novgorod was pushed west.
- The second, in 1939-41(1186-8) was a greater loss for Laanelia and Saaremae while most of the other Baltic states had either left the war early or opted out of participating altogether. Laanelia lost control of Hiiu Island during this war and became a vassal to Novgorod until the Roman annex.
In the early 2000's(1247+) Menguren raids on Novgorod had caused migrations and renewed territorial ambitions in the Baltic. The Virunae-Iganian defeat in 2005(1252) saw Virunae reduced to a handful of cities and Igania's territory more than halved. This constituted a second wave of Virunae ethnic infusion throughout the Livias.
The Ordeum's punitive excursions into the Baltic nations, and its contesting with Rome for their allegiances were what spurred Rome to actively begin infrastructure programmes and aide the Livia's in the 2010's(1257+). Ultimately being able to annex the regions wholesale with the people sufficiently demoralized by the Ordeum, Rome initially purchased the Island Hiiu from the Novgorods in 2046(1293) after an especially ruthless Ordeum raid on Novgorod. The Roman Legions LXXIV through LXXX then moved into the Livias in 2047(1294) and declared their annexation of the Livias including the Laanelia vassal. At the time and in that region, 6 Legions were quite enough to dissuade Ordeum incursions.
In the 2060's(1307+) as the Novgorods and Muscovites began growing in strength and opposing the Medius Ordeum, Rome moved an additional six legions into Livia Superior.
As A Province
As Rome took control of the region, they re-drew the border between Livia Inf. and Sup. as many Saccalans had fled to and occupied northern Latagalian lands.
As Rome had not often been at war with the Livians, once the threat of the Horde was under control, the Livs acted little different as Roman subjects than as their independent states. They did not fear the Legions (very much) and felt their relation with Rome more akin to a protector than a ruler. Romanisation was anywhere from slow to static.
For almost 80 years this situation continued where the Livs just didn't seem to be integrating right, dis-concerning the successive Imperial administrators until programmes in the spirit of those used to deal with the long dead Goths during the crisis with the Huns were issued.
They totally didn't work, the Livs in many cities rejected the new Roman laws and some caused riots, after a couple years the laws were relaxed and things calmed down a bit but the Livs fully recognised the attacks on their culture and began deciding that their time under Rome ought to end.
Livia Inferior was given semi-autonomy in 2144(1391) after nearly 100 years as a Roman province.