New Spain (Spanish: Nueva España) is a Spanish viceroyalty in the Americas north of the Isthmus of Panama. It was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, and following additional conquests, it was made a viceroyalty (Spanish: virreinato) in 1535. The first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas, at its peak it comprised Mexico, Central America, much of the Southwestern and Central North American Union, the Spanish West Indies, Spanish Florida, and eventually, the Philippines and other Pacific islands.

The country is bordered to the north by the North American Union; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Viceroyalty of New Granada and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico

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