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On July 20, 1764, King George III established the boundary between Connecticut New Hampshire and New York along the west bank of the River, north of Massachusetts and south of 45 Degrees north latitude. Under this decree, Albany County, New York, would have gained the land that was presently known as Vermont. However, New Hampshire had issued 135 land grants before then, which New York refused to recognized. Colonists dissatifised colonists organized in opposition. Among these was Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys, which protected the original New Hampshire colonists. On July 4, 1776, the independent Vermont was declared, however the rebellion was soon put down by the British.
In the new United Colonies of America, the area of Vermont was under the control of New York again. Militias and the Green Mountain Boys attempted to get rid of both the New Yorkers and the British, but they were swiftly defeated in 1781. Minor disputes still existed, with most colonists still claiming to belong to New Hampshire.
When the Second American Revolt broke out, the new Republic of New England claimed Vermont, and sent its armies under Henry Dearborn to conquer the region. Meanwhile, New York planned on protecting its territory, and an army under William Hull was sent. The two clashed at Hartford, and the war was soon declared.