Venezuela, is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America.
Spain's colonization of mainland Venezuela started in 1522, establishing its first permanent South American settlement in the present-day city of Cumaná.
Spain's eastern Venezuelan settlements were incorporated into New Andalusia Province. Administered by the Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo from the early 16th century, most of Venezuela became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the early 18th century, and was then reorganized as an autonomous Captaincy General starting in 1776.
After a series of unsuccessful uprisings, the venezuelan crillos under the leadership of Simón Bolivar (caudillo of the Northern Latin American) in the city of Caracas declared the begin of the war of Independence in Venezuela, some months after others similar movements in the continent, as part of the called, Great Latin American Insurrection. The independentist troops fought in a guerrilla warfare in all the country against the royalist soldiers, with victories and defeat for both sides, that lasted almost six years until the sign of the Agreement of Bogotá with the Spanish Empire, that recognized the independence of the colonies. Venezuela born as a free nation in 1829, with Simón Bolivar briefly as the first president. He was succeeded by José Antonio Páez in 1832.