Vatican City State
Status Civitatis Vaticanae
Timeline: timeline
Flag of the Vatican City
Flag of the Vatican
(and largest city)
Vatican City
  others Latin
Pope Francis
President of the Governorate Cardinal Giuseppe Bertello
Area 0.44 km²
Population 842 
Independence 1929 (from Italy, by treaty)
Currency Vatican lira

The only nation on earth which is both an absolute monarchy and an absolute theocracy, Vatican City is distinct from the Holy See, which dates back to early Christianity and is the main episcopal see of 1.2 billion Latin and Eastern Catholic adherents around the globe. The independent city-state, on the other hand, came into existence in 1929 by the Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and Italy, which spoke of it as a new creation, not as a vestige of the much larger Papal States (756–1870), which had previously encompassed much of central Italy. According to the terms of the treaty, the Holy See has "full ownership, exclusive dominion, and sovereign authority and jurisdiction" over the city-state.

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