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Uyghurstan, officially called the Republic of Uyghurstan, is a country in Central Asia. It is bordered by Mongolia to the east, Tibet to the south, Russia to the north, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and India to the west. Its capital is Ghulja.
Uyghurstan is home to the Uyghur ethnic group, with considerable Kazakh, Russian, Kyrgyz, Chinese, and Dungan minorities.
Uyghurstan was formerly known as Xinjiang or Chinese Turkestan. In the 19th century, Russian interests have penetrated the region in the late 19th century, and for a while, controlled parts of Uyghurstan.
In 1912, the Republic of China is declared and at that point, Xinjiang is a province led by a Chinese governor. The provincial government favored Chinese and Hui (Dungans) over the Uyghurs, fueling sentiment.
In 1933, the area along Kashgar rose in revolt and proclaimed an "East Turkestan Islamic Republic". The rebellion was suppressed by the Kuomintang.
During the Second World War, Xinjiang was used as a forward base by the Chinese against the Soviet Union. The Kuomintang purged pro-Soviet officials in the government, and they joined a number of Uyghur exiles clamoring for the Soviet invasion of Xinjiang, and in 1944, the Soviets captured the Ili region to establish the Uyghur Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1945, Soviet rule was extended to the former Xinjiang.
Uyghurstan later was a point of settlement of other groups from the USSR, including Russians, Kalmyks, Tatars, and others. The oil industry became the main industry of the country.
In 1991, the Uyghur Soviet Socialist Republic declared independence as Uyghurstan. While it has been largely peaceful, tensions remain against its border with Pakistan and India, the government fearing militant groups would try to infliltrate their country and overthrow their government. Tibet also accused Uyghurstan of forcibly Uyghur-izing Tibetans in Uyghurstan.