United States of Colombia
Estados Unidos de Colombia
Timeline: Emancipation (Map Game)
OTL equivalent: United States of Colombia
NicDonalds Flag of Gran Colombia 1861-1876
Flag of Colombia.svg Coat of arms of United States of Colombia.svg
Coat of arms
United States of Colombia (orthographic projection).svg
Location of Colombia
(and largest city)
De facto Languages Spanish
68 Ethnic Languages
Ethnic groups  86% Mestizo and White
10.6% Black
3.5% Amerindian
Demonym Colombian
Government Federal Republic Dominant-Party
 -  President Eustorgio Salgar Moreno
 -  1870 census 2,681,637 
Currency Columbian Peso (COL$)

The United States of Colombia was the name adopted in 1861 through the Rionegro Constitution for the Granadine Confederation, following years of civil war. Colombia became a federal state itself composed of nine "sovereign states".


The civil war between 1860-1862 resulted in the dissolution of the Granadine Confederation which had been increasingly subjected to efforts by conservatives to centralize rule over the federal states. The liberal leader, General Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera, defeated the conservative government of President Bartolomé Calvo in 1862 and was installed as new leader. Much power was distributed back to the states from the government in Bogotá.

On 3 February 1863, Congress approved the name United States of Colombia for the country, and on 8 May, the Rionegro Constitution was promulgated. It established a federal system with a central presidency with a term of two years and without the possibility of immediate re-election. The president was elected by the states. On 12 May, Mosquera was chosen to be the first president. Under this decentralized regime, regionalist feelings reached their ultimate expression.

Following the reforms of earlier years, before the creation of the new federation, the liberals aimed to build the United States of Colombia upon a decentralized, free market system. As with previous liberal presidencies, such as Mosquera's first two terms as president, a tough stance towards the Catholic Church was taken, much to the dismay of conservatives. Land held by the Church was seized and transferred to industrialists and the influence and rights of the Church was severely limited.

Throughout the later 1800s, Colombia exerted influence and established friendly relations with Venezuela and Ecuador mainly under Presidents Rey and Mallarino. The Colombian Liberal Party also became increasing radical and in favor of reunification due to its unionista leaders. The republic was re-established and unified with Ecuador on April 14, 1876 as the United States of Gran Colombia.

List of Presidents

Candidates for 1874: Francisco Bolivar Rey (Radical Liberal Unionista), Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera (Moderate Liberal), Santiago Pérez de Manosalbas (Radical Liberal).

No. President Took office Left office Party
1 Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera 2 Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera 14 May 1863 1 April 1864 Partido Liberal
2 Manuel Murillo Toro by Brady Manuel Murillo Toro 1 April 1864 1 April 1866 Partido Liberal
3 Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera 2 Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera 1 April 1866 23 May 1867 Partido Liberal
4 Manuel María de los Santos Acosta Santos Acosta Castillo 23 May 1867 1 April 1868 Partido Liberal
5 Santos Gutiérrez 1 Santos Gutiérrez Prieto 1 April 1868 1 April 1870 Partido Liberal
6 Eustorgio Salgar 1 Eustorgio Salgar Moreno 1 April 1870 1 April 1872 Partido Liberal
7 Manuel Murillo Toro by Brady Manuel Murillo Toro 1 April 1872 Present Partido Liberal
8 Reynaldo Hahn Francisco Bolivar Rey 1 April 1874 1 April 1876 Partido Liberal
8 Carlos Eugenio Restrepo Restrepo Enrique Nel Mallarino 1 April 1876 Present Partido Liberal