The United States of America, America, or the USA, is a sovereign state comprising of all of Eastern North America, and Western Greenland. First colonised by the British during the 17th century, it became independent in 1768 when the colonists separated from the mother country. Expanding Northward throughout the 19th century, the USA came to control all of eastern North America.
The territory that now comprises the USA was originally inhabited by many indigenous nations. European colonisation began in the 1500s, with Spain, France, and England all colonising parts of the continent. By 1750, the entire eastern coast, as well as the Hudson Bay was controlled by Britain, with Quebec and greater Louisiana controlled by the french. During the Seven Years War (1756-1763), Quebec was taken by the British, and Louisiana by the Spanish.
Due to a variety of reasons, the thirteen eastern colonies rebelled in 1775 against British rule. After an eight year war, they secured their independence as the United States of America. The new republic purchased Louisiana from France in 1803, helping to fund the war in Europe.
In 1812, to support their French allies, the USA invaded British Canada. With the fall of Britain in 1813, all the British North America colonies fell to the USA. For the next twenty years, the former colonies were administered as territories, despite their large populations. This led to much resentment by the population, which boiled over in 1831 to open rebellion. The Quebecois, as well as feeling deprived of electoral rights, were dismayed that the policy of religious and cultural tolerance promoted by the British was not carried through under the new American administration. Quebec seceded from the Union, followed closely by the loyalist rebels in the former maritime colonies, who seceded and declared their allegiance to the Britannic monarch. Whilst the rebellions were fairly quickly crushed by the American army, the uprisings struck fear into the government, who negotiated for the settled Canadian territories to be formed into states and admitted into the Union.
For the remainder of the 19th century, much focus was put on settling the West and North-West regions of the nation. After gold was discovered in Saskatchewan, many thousands of Americans flooded Northwards towards the goldfields. When the government proposed annexation of the gold region in 1870, they were met with intense hostility from the Russians, who also had many thousands of subjects in the region. Tensions rose, and some small skirmishes were fought, but all-out war was prevented by the intervention of the French, who negotiated the creation of the Saskatchewan Condominium (present-day Saskatchewan); thus ending the Saskatchewan Crisis and restoring the USA's formerly good relations with the Russian Empire.
The United States was not heavily involved in the Asia-Pacific War, but sent an expeditionary force and millions of dolars worth of supplies and provisions to assist their allies the French and Russians. In the post-war years, the American economy remained strong, thriving on a strong manufacturing sector. Today America is a well-respected middle power, both politically, economically and culturally.
The United States of America is a federal, presidential republic. In general, citizens are subject to three levels of government: local, state and federal. The executive and legislature of all three government types are usually selected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. At the federal level, there is no proportional representation of the population, and it is rare at the state level. The federal government is split into three branches:
- Legislative: the Congress (parliament) which is split into two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress makes federal laws, controls the purse of government, declares law, and has the power to impeach government members.
- Executive: the President of the United States is the commander in chief of the US military, has the power to pass -and veto- laws presented by the Congress, appoints federal officers (such as Supreme Court Judges), and does symbolic duties.
- Judicial: the Supreme Court of the United States scrutinises laws passed by the Legislative and Executive branches to see whether they are constitutional.
Members of the House of Representatives are elected directly by the citizens of single-member Electoral Districts. District boundaries are redrawn every ten years to ensure that each district has roughly the same population. In the Senate, all 51 states are given two senators, who are elected for six-year terms. The President is not directly elected by the citizenry, but indirectly, by an electoral college. The president may only have two five-year terms in
The United States is a federal union of 51 states, as well as three territories. The thirteen original British colonies which rebelled in 1773 were the first states of the new country. When the Louisiana Territory was acquired from France, it was organised into territories until settlers moved in, after which states were created out of the land. When territories already settled, such as Canada and Florida, were acquired, the process to statehood was considerably quicker; although in the latter case, not quick enough to prevent the rebellions of the 1820s.
Today, territories are sparsely-populated regions which are not afforded representation in the Senate. Their citizens are, however, represented in the House of Representatives, and they have the same rights as state citizens. Washington D.C. has special status as the federal capital, and citizens residing within its borders do not have any form of federal representation; something somewhat resented by the populace.
Military and Foreign Affairs
The USA was a founding member of the Fraternity des Nations. Its foreign policy revolves around its membership of the French Bloc, and a close relationship with the French Empire, America's oldest ally. The US is very economically competitive with Brazil, but these tensions have not spilled out into conflict.
The USA operates a medium sized, highly-trained modern military. The US Navy has the largest aircraft carriers of any navy. As a member of the FN, the USA frequently sends troops on peacekeeping missions around the world, as well as its own missions, like the 1964 occupation of Jamaica.