The nation was established in 1776, when it broke away from control of The United Kingdom, or Great Britain, with its date of independence being on July 4. The American war for independence lasted 7 years, ending in 1783 with the recognition of the U.S by several other nations, including the U.K.
In the modern day, it stands as one of, if not the, most powerful nations on Earth; being the first, along with Prussia, to harness the full known extent of nuclear power, holding the largest economy of any nation and boasting an extremely high standard of living. It has become much more similar politically to its allies in Europe due to a large shift in policy towards the left that has led to the creation of several new parties.
Independence and Westward Expansion (1776-1848)
The American war of independence was the first ever successful colonial war for independence against a major European power. America was also the first major nation to install a government centered around Republicanism, with many of its politicians believing that it was in the best interest of the people to have a deeper level of involvement in the affairs of their own government. The nation's declaration of independence was adopted on July the 4th, 1776 after a vote to put the document into action among the second American Congress; the date is now celebrated as American Independence Day.
In 1788, the congress drafted a constitution with several articles describing the limitations of power of each branch of the government, as well as their capabilities and duties. The document also included ten amendments, most often referred to as the Bill of Rights, which established the basic rights of American citizens and what would be within national laws and limitations. Although the majority of these amendments were widely accepted by most American politicians, the second amendment, or the clause that ensures a citizen's right to keep firearms, was protested by several groups due to its over-reaching phrasing and boundaries, as it still is today.
The United States began to expand westward around 1803, with the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory in central North America from France, one of its greatest allies. American military incursions into Spanish and British territory during the War of 1812 led to the cession of several of their colonial lands to the U.S. A two year war with Mexico in 1846 left America with a large cession of land in the Southwest, as well as the annexation of the once independent Republic of Texas, leading the U.S to become over twice its original size.
Civil War Era and Reconstruction (1849-1880)
By the end of the Mexican American war in 1848, a large amount of tension had been building between the United States' North and South. This was mainly due to the issues of slavery and in some part, states rights, eventually leading to a civil war in which a majority of the Nation's southern sates broke off into their own sovereign nation, The Confederate States of America (Also referred to as The "Confederacy" or "CSA"). The war was fought for a total of 4 years, with the CSA struggling to gain any sort of foriegn assistance and suffering heavy losses due to a population and level of steady resources that paled in comparison to those of the United States.
Midway through the war, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln delivered the Emancipation Proclamation, a statement declaring that all slaves within the Union were to be freed. This shifted the primary focus of winning the war from reuniting the Union to abolishing slavery and rendering all previously enslaved blacks free. By the end of the war in 1865, with a Union victory, three amendments were added to the U.S constitution that guaranteed former slaves citizenship, voting rights, and the promise that slavery was never to be re-instituted within the United States.
Industrialization to Pre-Great War (1880-1914)
A few decades after its Civil War, the U.S experienced a rapid expansion in its infrastructure and federally provided services such as cross-national railroads and telephone and telegraph networks. The Union expanded again with the acquisition of Alaska from Russia in 1867 and the annexation of the Republic of Hawaii in 1898, as well as the Philippines from Spain, its final three major territorial gains for nearly 100 years afterwards.
As tensions in Europe began to reach a higher intensity, the United States maintained neutrality, although its trade with allies such as The U.K, France and Russia. Despite its claimed neutrality, the U.S did express a support for the Anglo-Russian alliance, as well as Prussia's choice to remain out of the Central Powers.
The Great War, Depression and American War (1915-1950)
America joined the Allied Powers in 1915, one year after the start of the Great War. It supplied minimal aid and or force to its Allies, although tactical and diplomatic cooperation was extensive. Following the American declaration of war on Austria-Hungary, both Bulgaria and The Ottoman Empire cut off relations with the nation entirely, although The Ottomans never declared war. At the end of the war, support for the implementation of the Treaty of Versailles into U.S international relations was high, prompting the senate to approve American Entry into the League of Nations in 1918. For the first 30 or so years of its membership in the League, The United States usually abstained from votes on legislation, with a few exceptions.
Following the war, the nation experienced nearly a decade of economic hardship, often referred to as the Great Depression. The causes of this event range from poor weather conditions in America during the thirties to the high prices of munitions and amount of government funding put into rebuilding post-war infrastructure.
The American War began for the U.S in mid 1940 when Mexico invaded it and several smaller North American nations in its attempt to achieve the "Design of Grand Mexico". The United States' involvement in the war was extensive, as the majority of fighting in the West occurred on the nation's own land. It was the largest contributor of troops throughout the war, providing over 16 million in total, 5 percent of its population at the time. Cooperation with foreign powers was also large-scale, the U.S being the largest provider of resources to French resistance forces as well as the League of Nations International Police Force (LNPF).
Civil Rights Era, Cold War and the Shift Left (1951-1990)
The United States experienced a series of events following the American War that drew a great amount of attention to the rights of minorities and the views of the left. This period in the nation's history is known as the Civil Rights Era, in which several acts of legislation recognized and alleviated the issues facing minorities of the United States, African Americans in particular.
Due to the division of the nation following the civil war, as well as the political climate of the region, the Southern U.S experienced segregation between races due to laws passed within the two decades following the end of the Civil War. Said laws prohibited the use of public facilities intended only for whites by blacks and other minorities. Full desegregation was addressed as an issue in 1950, with the end of the American War, following several legislation proposals brought about from the left, at the time represented by The Democratic Party and succeeded by the newer Progressive Party in the early 1970s. Desegregation became law in 1972, followed by the increased popularity of the Progressive Party that spearheaded the campaign to bring it about.
Tensions with the Soviet Union were high during this period due to increased Soviet aggression in Eastern Europe as well as ideals that greatly opposed the fundamental values that the United States was built upon. Both nations battled for power over Europe as the U.S led NATO and the U.S.S.R led the WTO. Tensions began to "thaw", however, with League of Nations intervention in 1975.
Modern Era (1990-)
Following the 80s, the United States experienced an expansive growth in its economy not seen for the previous 90 years, ending in the year 2000. On September 11, 2001, two hijacked passenger airplanes crashed into the World Trade center, killing approximately 3,000 people. This triggered the American intervention in Afghanistan, where the terror group Al Qaeda was headquartered, and eventually led to the war on terror, which lasted a total of 12 years (2001-2013). Cooperation with the Hussein Regime in the Levant and the Government of Afghanistan ensured that major acts of terror did not occur following the year 2013.