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The United States was largely a failed British colony after the failed Revolution in 1776. The states did not have any vast mineral or other sources of wealth that the other British Colonies had (e.g. India and opium). Furthermore, the colonies faced pressure from the French to the South, who had recently annexed Florida, which caused the British to invest major resources in border defense in the Southern states. This led to opportunities for revolutionary groups to commit acts of terrorism and treason in the Northern states, especially New England.
Main Article: United States Revolution
The United States Revolution was largely sparked by the 23 Stars Over Trenton Massacre, in which British forces arrested 23 people whom they suspected of plotting to blow up the British Governor's Office in New York City. Seven of the accused were women, four were under the age of 14, and the rest were professionals, of whom only one had any ties to the Revolutionary Movement. They were all captured, tried, and executed the same day. The soldiers responsible for the hangings, however, botched the execution. The prisoners strangled to death over the course of half an hour.
This inflamed the Revolutionary Movement, sending many into a patriotic frenzy. Large-scale riots and guerrilla movements sprung up, especially in the Northern states. In response to this public outcry, British King George III decided to blockade the ports of Boston, New York, Trenton, and all other major northern port cities in order to starve out the rebels of guns, ammunition, and supplies. This united the majority against the British Crown, and fierce riots sparked by spontaneous demonstrations broke out upon hearing the news in seven cities in New England.
Seeing this as an opportunity to gain land in the South, the French (having annexed Florida from the Spanish in 1796) invaded Georgia and parts of South Carolina. This was too much for the British Regulars to handle, and enduring the continuing riots and a war to the South was unbearable. Eight weeks after the American Revolutionary Movement started, British forces fled to Quebec, and the United States of America was born with the withdrawal of British forces to Quebec.
In the Post-Revolution era, the United States of America went into severe economic depression, and teetered on the brink of Civil War. There were several factions, all vying for control of the Congress, mostly divided along the lines of Federalism vs States' Rights. Eventually, in 1812, the Federalists won out, and the Constitution was redrafted. In 1813 the small portion of South Carolina left from the British withdrawal was sold to the French for 150,000 Francs. This gave the Americans a slight boost to their economy, but they still did not have enough to balance their teetering budget, so they took out massive loans from the French of over 2,000,000 Francs. This balanced the budget, but it put the new nation at the mercy of the French. Then, a new Minister of the Treasury-Wallace Cromwall-proposed a plan for economic reform including reforming the National Bank, the eventual industrialization of the nation, and the production and shipment of manufactured goods overseas. This plan created jobs, and essentially pulled America out of depression over the course of the next 30 years.
In the 1840's, America expanded Westward toward the Mississippi River. They annexed all the land up to the Mississippi, minus the Florida Territory, and continued until they reached the border with the Mexican Empire, who claimed all the land up until the OTL Canadian Border. This lead to the founding of many industrial cities in the former Ohio Territory, which became essential to the new American economy. In 1849, slavery was abolished in the United States and her colonies. This angered the French, for whom slavery was a major market, but they took no retaliation and, in 1898, abolished slavery themselves, after the formation of the French Commonwealth.
The United States currently has 23 States which are each governed by a regional Governor. A president is elected every four years and Congress is elected every five years, in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. This is staggered so that the terms overlap, and 1/5th of Congress is up for re-election during any one year.
The Constitution of the United States of America is not nearly as liberal as our own by way of civilian rights and civil liberties. Faced with multiple threats on nearly all sides, the newly formed United States government was more focused on survival than the tenets of Democracy. The Bill of Rights still exists in a modified form, now known as the Sanctions of Civilian Freedoms (see Sanctions of Civilian Freedoms).
After the Revolution, tensions between the United States and Britain remained unfriendly, but rarely ever threatened to escalate into war. The British see no advantage in a bloody war with the US, and the United States values nothing in British Canada. Relations remain unfriendly but neutral.
The French helped the United States win the Revolution, and helped them through economic downturn. The US and France retain friendly relations to this day, and are military allies. The United States, however, refuses to intervene in Franco-Mexican relations or wars, seeing this as a potential for disaster.