We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
The Executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his term for the next four Years, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same Term, be elected by direct, universal suffrage. If such a majority is not obtained on the first ballot, a second ballot shall take place on the thirtieth day after. Only the two candidates polling the greatest number of votes in the first ballot, after any withdrawal of better placed candidates, may stand on the second ballot.
No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President.
Should the Presidency fall vacant for any reason whatsoever, or should the Senate on a referral from the Government rule by an absolute majority of its members that the President is incapacitated, the duties of the President shall be temporarily exercised by the Vice-President, or if the latter is in turn incapacitated, by the Government.
In the case of a vacancy, or where the incapacitation of the President is declared to be permanent by the Senate, the Vice-President shall assume the duties of the Presidency for the duration of the latter’s term. In the event of a double vacancy, the Government shall call for an election to be held to replace both the President and Vice President no later than thirty days after said vacancy becomes apparent.
In the case of a vacancy in the Vice-Presidency but not the Presidency, the President will appoint a Vice-President, subject to confirmation by the Senate, to assume the duties of the Vice-Presidency.
The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of the several states.
Before he enters on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Affirmation: “I do solemnly affirm that I will faithfully execute the Office of the President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”
The President of the United States shall appoint the First Secretary. He shall terminate the appointment of the First Secretary when the latter tenders the resignation of the Government or is removed by a motion of no confidence.
On the recommendation of the First Secretary, he shall appoint the other members of the Government and terminate their appointments.
The President of the United States shall preside over the cabinet.
The President of the United States shall promulgate Acts of the Congress within fifteen days following the passage of an Act and its transmission to the Government.
The President of the United States shall receive ambassadors and envoys extraordinary to foreign powers; foreign ambassadors and envoys extraordinary shall be accredited to him.
The President of the United States shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.
He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided that a two-thirds majority of Senators concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, members of the Cabinet, Magistrates of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein provided for, and which shall be established by law.
He shall from time to time give the Congress information on the State of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.
He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the Congress, and, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such a time that he shall think proper.
Where the institutions of the United States, the independence of the Nation, the integrity of its territory or the fulfillment of its international commitments are under serious and immediate threat, and where the proper functioning of the constitutional authorities is interrupted, the President of the United States shall take measures required by these circumstances, after formally consulting the First Secretary, the President of the Senate, and the Chief Magistrate of the Supreme Court.
He shall address the Nation and inform it of such measures.
The measures shall be designed to provide the constitutional authorities as swiftly as possible, with the means to carry out their duties. The Supreme Court shall be consulted with regard to such measures.
The Congress shall not be dissolved during the exercise of such emergency powers.
After thirty days of the exercise of such emergency powers, the matter may be referred to the Supreme Court by the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House or by an absolute majority of Congressmen so as to decide if the conditions laid down in paragraph one still apply. The Court shall make its decision publicly as soon as possible. It shall, as of right, carry out such an examination and shall make its decision in the same manner after sixty days of the exercise of emergency powers or at any moment thereafter.
The President of the United States is vested with the power to grant individual pardons.
The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on Impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
All legislative power herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives
The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every fourth year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall be at least twenty-one years of age at the time of election.
No person shall be a Representative who shall not have been eight years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen, as well as of the district for which he is elected to represent.
There shall be a Representative for every 30,000 residents of the United States, and no state shall have less than one Representative. States having more than one Representative shall be divided into electoral districts based upon population. These districts shall be redrawn every tenth year by an impartial Congressional committee, in accordance with a census to be held every tenth year.
Electoral districts shall comprise of single members, elected by a majority vote of the people. If a candidate for office should not win a majority of the vote in his district, a second ballot shall take place on the thirtieth day after. Only the two candidates polling the greatest number of votes in the first ballot, after any withdrawal of better placed candidates, may stand on the second ballot.
When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, an election shall be held to fill said vacancy no longer than thirty days after the occurrence of the vacancy.
Only members of the House of Representatives shall be allowed to serve in the Cabinet, and members of the Cabinet should serve concurrently in both the House of Representatives and the Cabinet.
The House shall have the power to bring motions of confidence against the standing Cabinet, and it shall have the power to introduce articles of impeachment against elected officials, including members of the Cabinet. Should a government fail a vote of confidence, the President shall appoint a new First Secretary and change his Cabinet accordingly.
The House shall vote to confirm members of the Cabinet and the First Secretary.
The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.
No person shall be a Senator who shall not have been eight years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen.
Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.
The Senate shall choose their own President and other officers.
The Senate shall have the sole power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Magistrate shall preside: And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present.
Judgment in cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
Each House shall be the Judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.
Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.
Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.
No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.
All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other bills.
Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approves, he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.
Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.
he Congress shall have power To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;
To borrow money on the credit of the United States;
To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes;
To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;
To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;
To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States;
To establish post offices and post roads;
To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;
To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;
To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations;
To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;
To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;
To provide and maintain a navy;
To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;
To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;
To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings;—And
To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.
The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation.
The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.
No bill of attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
No capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state.
No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one state, be obliged to enter, clear or pay duties in another.
No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.
No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States: and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.
The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Magistrates, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices for a single term of twenty-years, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.
The Supreme Court shall be composed of thirteen members; and shall be presided over by a Chief Magistrate. It shall have the power to strike down acts of the executive and of the Congress that are determined to be unconstitutional by it's members.
The judicial Power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; to controversies between two or more states; between a state and citizens of another state; between citizens of different states; between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.
In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.
Trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.
Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No [erson shall be convicted of Treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open Court. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of Treason, but no attainder of Treason shall work corruption of Blood, or forfeiture except during the life of the person attainted.
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.
The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.
A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new States shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.
The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a democratic and republican Form of Government.
The United States shall protect each of them [the States] against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.
No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.
No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's [sic] inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.
No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.
All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.
An amendment, proposed either by a member of Congress or by a public initiative petition having been signed by at least twenty-five percent pf persons who voted in the most recent general election, must be approved by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress, and then ratified by means of plebiscite requiring a majority vote of the voting public. No Amendment shall be proposed prior to the first general election for the United States of America's executive and legislative bodies.
BILL OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS
The Bill of Rights and Freedoms of the United States of America guarantees the rights and freedoms set out herein, subject only to such limits, prescribed by law, as can be demonstrably justified by a compelling government interest, are narrowly tailored to said interest, and achieve said interest through the least restrictive means.
Every individual has certain inalienable and fundamental freedoms: freedom of conscience and religion, freedom of thought, belief, opinion, and expression, including freedom of the press; freedom of peaceful assembly; freedom of association, and the freedom to petition his government for a redress of grievances.
Every citizen of the United States having reached the age of twenty-one, has the right to vote in an election for his representatives in the Congress, as well as for the President of the United States.
Every citizen of the United States has the right to enter, remain in and leave the United States. Every citizen has the right to move to, take up residence, and pursue the gaining of a livelihood in any state of the union.
Every individual has the right to keep and bear arms.
Every individual has the right to life, liberty, security of person and property, the right not to be deprived thereof without due process of law, and the right to equal protection of the law without discrimination.
Every individual has the right to be secure against unreasonable search and seizure.
Every individual has the right not to be arbitrarily detained or imprisoned. If detained or imprisoned, individuals have the right to be informed promptly of the reasons therefore; to retain and instruct counsel without delay and be informed of that right; and to have the validity of the detention determined by way of habeas corpus and to be released if the imprisonment is unlawful.
Every individual has the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of their peers and to be informed, without delay, of the specific offense and to be confronted by witnesses against them. Once acquitted, no individual can be retried for the same offense. No individual can be compelled to testify in any proceedings against himself. No individual may be subjected to cruel or unusual punishment.
Anyone whose rights or freedoms, as guaranteed by this Bill, have been infringed or denied may apply to a court of competent jurisdiction to obtain such remedy as the court considers appropriate and just in the circumstances. Where a court concludes that evidence was obtained in a manner that infringed or denied any rights or freedoms guaranteed by this Bill, the evidence that, having regard to all the circumstances, the admission of it in the proceedings would bring the administration of justice into dispute.
The guarantee in this Bill of certain rights and freedoms shall not be construed to abrogate or derogate from any treaty or other rights or freedoms that pertain to the native peoples of the lands of the United States of America.
The guarantee in this Bill of certain rights and freedoms shall not be construed as denying the existence of any other rights or freedoms that exist in the United States of America.
This Bill applies to the Congress, Government, and Executive of the United States of America in respect of all manners within the authority of the Congress, the Government, and the Executive of the United States of America; and to the legislative, administrative, and executive branches of each State in respect of all manners within the authority of the legislative, administrative, and executive branches of each State.
This Constitution shall come into effect if it is approved by a majority vote of the people of the United States of America.
Section VI of Article II of the Constitution is hereby repealed.
Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by means of legislation.