| This Rise of Roses page is a Proposal. |
The United Republic of South America is an Italian-spanish nation on southern South America.
About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of Chile and Patagonia. Example settlement sites from the very early human habitation are Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Crater's lava tube.
In the Patagonia, the indigenous peoples included the Tehuelches, the Selk'nam (Ona) and Haush (on Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego), the Yámana and the Kawéskar or Alakaluf (on the archipelagos and coastal areas to the south of Tierra del Fuego). In the Patagonian archipalagoes north of Taitao Peninsula lived the Chonos. In Chile, the Mapuche (or Araucanians as they were known by the Europeans) were the principal Indigenous inhabitants.
During the 15th century, the Incas briefly extended their empire into Chile, but the Mapuche successfully resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization. They fought against the Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui and his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river.
In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the earth, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him, the Strait of Magellan. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on February 12, 1541. Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chile's central valley, and Chile became part of the Spanish Colonial Empire for almost a century.