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It is the world's seventh-largest country in geographical area and the fifth-largest country by population. It is the largest Portuguese-speaking country in the world, one of the two who speak portuguese in the America.
The name came from the captaincy of São Paulo, at the time of the colonial Brazil. The country's name means the name of Saul of Tarsus, or Paul the Apostle. The first territories in San Paulo were the Captaincy of São Vicente, Captaincy of Santo Amaro and the Captaincy of Itanhaém, part of the colonial Brazil.
The land now called Brazil was claimed for the Portuguese Empire on 22 April 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral. The Portuguese encountered indigenous peoples divided into several tribes, most of whom spoke languages of the Tupi–Guarani family, and fought among themselves. Though the first settlement was founded in 1532, colonization was effectively begun in 1534, when King Dom João III of Portugal divided the territory into the fifteen private and autonomous Captaincy Colonies of Brazil.
However, the decentralized and unorganized tendencies of the captaincy colonies proved problematic, and in 1549 the Portuguese king restructured them into the Governorate General of Brazil, a single and centralized Portuguese colony in South America. In the first two centuries of colonization, Indigenous and European groups lived in constant war, establishing opportunistic alliances in order to gain advantages against each other.
Dissatisfied by the end of the Iberian Union, the inhabitants of San Paulo acclaimed Amador Bueno to be the king of San Paulo, in which the coronation was accepted and the new king declared independence.
See also: Independence War
John IV, in 1641, declared war on San Paulo, trying to keep their independence. The Paulistas pursued the Portuguese who would not give support to King Amador Bueno. The Paulistas struck a deal with Maurice of Nassau, to the aid of their independence.
At the end of the 17th century, the bandeirantes who explored the forests in San Paulo, at the Minas de Ouro, São João del-Rei, Mato Grosso and Goiás region found gold. This era was known as the Paulist Gold Rush (Portuguese: Corrida do ouro/Ciclo do ouro).
With the export of sugarcane, cattle and gold, San Paulo was a nation that has progressed in the foreign trade in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Industrialization and the American Independence
A paulist bourgeois called Amílcar Barroso in his stay in England had the idea to bring industries to the growing Kingdom of San Paulo. The First Industry of San Paulo was the Companhia de Carvão Barroso (Coal Industry), which is the current district of Santo Amaro (in the City of São Paulo).
In 1777, the paulists went to war against the Great Britain, in support of the United States. The American Revolutionary War gave the opening to other struggles for independence in the Americas.
In the 19th century, San Paulo was already considered the most powerful nation in Latin America. Its economy grew thanks to its primary sector and the industrial sector. In 1826, he created with the United States and the South American nations, the SAU (South American Union).
In 1831, was inaugurated the first industry in its colony in Africa.
From 1835 to 1874, San Paulo faced a long period of regional wars. The Guerra Gaúcha, 1st Platine War, 2nd Platine War, and finally the Great South-American War.
Tensions on the First World War increased. Since the treaties as the Berlin Conference, the Franco-Prussian War and the expansion of influence, trade and colonial.
For San Paulo, the unequal division at the Berlin Conference was a synonym for war for them. When redefined the territories of the paulists in Africa, the threats were withdrawn.
The First World War breaks out, San Paulo, enters the war in 1916, sending naval squadrons to the German Oceania, invading together the Japanese, the Carolines and the Marianas Isles. San Paulo also sent his army to fight in Europe, the International Force of San Paulo (FISP), Paulist Air Force (FAP) and the Paulist 'Grand' Navy (GMP).
After the First World War, San Paulo was considered to be a world power, as well as being one of the only powers that had not destabilized its economy during the crisis of 1929, due to its primary sector.
San Paulo entered the Second World War in 1941, sending troops (Armed Forces and Expeditionary of San Paulo (FAESP), Paulist Air Force (FAP), San Paulo's Navy (MSP)). The justification of his entry was the bombing of its vessels in the Atlantic and off the coast of Portugal.
After World War II, San Paulo was already established as a superpower along the United States and the Soviet Union. In 1946, San Paulo dominated the Bavarian region, first as a province. In 1951 has evolved into a domain, and in 1967, became a state satellite. Its independence, de facto, just came in 1977.
In 1953, the Communist Party of San Paulo, led by Luís Carlos Prestes, Carlos Marighella and João Amazonas, applied a coup on the king Serafim I. The event became known as the Workers' Revolution of 1953.
San Paulo, opened a new movement in the Cold War, and created the PMSB (Pacto Mútuo de São Bernardo do Campo - San Bernardo Mutual Pact).
Your featured wars were Paulist-Argentina War, that was a war between Argentina and San Paulo for the great hegemony of South America.
Despite being a highly centralized government, the country was little more open in religious matters, being a multicultural country. These issues was one of the problems of the divergence between Prestes, Marighella, Amazonas and Lamarca.
Luís Carlos Prestes, wanted a more open policy with a secular state, Carlos Marighella and Lamarca wanted a closed policy, but with a secular state and João Amazonas wanted an atheist state, without religious expression.
During Marighella's government, Marighella invested heavily in the San Paulo army, which also generated the future 1962 Crisis in San Paulo, at the Prestes' government, one of the points to the fall of the dictatorship in San Paulo.
1958 was the year of tensions in San Paulo. In March, there was an attempted military coup led by military Olimpio Mourão Filho. In July, there was the Rebelião dos Estudantes (Rebellion of the Studants) in Piratininga, Curitiba and São João del-Rei, and Marighella resigned.
From October to December, there was the Guerra do Partido (War of the Communist Party) between the militia that supported Luís Carlos Prestes and who supported João Amazonas, Carlos Lamarca and Carlos Marighella.
In 1966, Prestes declared the first democratic election. The victory of Juscelino Kubitschek of the Social-Democratic Party, said, in fact, the end of dictatorship in the country.
In the same year, João Amazonas declared the Community of San Bernardo, which brought together the ABC Paulista being a country ruled by it.
The country collapsed in 1980 after the oppression of João Amazonas and the revolts of the population of that country, and diplomatic tensions with San Paulo.
In 1966, there were the first democratic presidential elections. The elected was Juscelino Kubitschek, of the Social-Democratic Party, former governor of São João del-Rei, and former prime-minister of the Kingdom of San Paulo.
Kubitschek said that he wouldn't end the San Bernardo Pact, but stabilize a democratic movement on the alliance.
Even with the end of dictatorship in the country, San Paulo continued its path in the Cold War. As influential countries of the United States' main system the anti-communist governments (or military dictatorships), the Soviet Union its influential countries had socialist governments, the influential countries in San Paulo were mostly democratic countries, which continued until the end of the Cold War.
Juscelino Kubitschek (1966-1973)
Juscelino was a very ambitious president. On his mandate, he announced the Plano de Metas (Goals Plan), a ambitious set of sectoral objectives, with the state and private investiment at the construction and improvements in diverse sectors such as education, health, energy, among others...
However, it was unsuccessful considerably, driving a period of rapid economic growth at the expense of a high public debt.
João Goulart (1973-1974)
João Goulart, or Jango, created the Basic reforms which were big proposals to the restructuration by his group. These include educational, fiscal, political and agrarian sectors. The reform would soon decrease social inequality and the development of the country.
The basic reform was a few unsucessful, besides of improve the economy a little more.
Paulo Maluf (1974-1978)
The Government of Paulo Maluf worsened even more the crisis in the country, and several manifestations and movements like "MTL - Movimento dos Trabalhadores pela Liberdade", "Fora Maluf," "FLD - Frente Liberal pela Democracia", among others.
Maluf had as the main objective, pave roads, streets, avenues, and improvements on trains, subways, and the public transport. Your government almost extinguished the basic reforms from the predecessor government.
Tancredo Neves (1978-1985)
In the 1978 elections, Maluf tried to reelect, but was eventually massacred by the candidate Tancredo Neves.
Otherwise Paulo Maluf, Tancredo Neves restructured the country, respecting other ideologies, improving industry and land reform.
His government was one of the most balanced, to keep consolidated state and private companies.
He was reelected in 1982 winning the congressman Ulysses Guimarães. Tancredo Neves died in April 1985 being unable to complete his mandate. His vice-president, Hélio Garcia, it was placed.
Even after his death, his government has been recognized worldwide, one of the most successful in history.
Hélio Garcia (1985-1987)
Hélio Garcia had a more liberal view, but small part of national industries were privatized. His government was basically a continuation of Tancredo Neves, with only minor changes.
Itamar Franco (1987-1991)
Itamar government was a point to San Paulo to have a more social democratic government. Despite the creation of Plano Novo Banterum, your government has known for rampant inflation, and the majority privatization of companies.
Leonel Brizola (1991-1995)
His government sacramented land reform, and invest heavily in the industrial sector and in education and refounding and pressing the basic reforms, Brizola was seen internationally as a reformist who played a key role in social and economic issues.
He was pre-candidate in the 1994 elections, but left due to health problems, leaving in its place, the future President Ludwig Inacio Lula da Silva.
Ludwig Inácio 'Lula' da Silva (1995-2003)
The first president who came from the working class, Lula was a populist president. The approval of the "bolsa família" was one of the main weapons to eradicate the extreme poverty in San Paulo.
During his government approved the Maria da Penha law, which is applied against the aggression against women.
In 2001 (2006 OTL), was announced by the Petrosampa announced the discovery of pre-salt in the San Paulo's coast.
The closing of the Rede Globo took place in his government, disrupt the political campaigns of Brizola and Lula.
Plínio de Arruda Sampaio (2003-2011)
The government of Plínio was one of the most recent. There was major investment in the country's education, creating the Bolsa Escola, which in addition to helping the entry of students in universities, facilitated the entry of low-income children in private schools.
Pliny was known as the Father of Youth, after the establishment of the Statute of Children and Adolescents.
Built large hospitals and health centers. In his government, great part of the health was derived from the state.
He was re-elected in 2006 after defeating the Democratic Party candidate, José Serra. His influence in Catholicism in San Paulo was the cause of a great support during the elections.
Eduardo Suplicy (2011-)
Eduardo Suplicy was elected in 2010 by the PST (Social-Labourist Party). Famous for being much of his presidency helping the poor of San Paulo.
Created and approved the Protection Act Homeless, which could warn or arrest any person to kill or make fun of a homeless, this law made San Paulo be recognized internationally for strongly fight the poverty and the prejudice in their country.
His government, populist, stamped equal in population, with the campaign "População Feliz é uma População Igualitária".
San Paulo occupies a medium area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior, sharing land borders with Argentina to the south; Guarani Republic and San Martin to the west; New Granada to the northwest; and Essequibo to the north.
It also encompasses a number of oceanic archipelagos, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz. Its relief, climate, and natural resources make San Paulo geographically diverse. Including its Atlantic islands, San Paulo lies between latitudes 6°N and 34°S, and longitudes 28° and 74°W.
San Paulo is the seventh largest country in the world, and fourth largest in the Americas, with a total area of 8,515,767.049 km², including 55,455 km² of water. It spans three time zones; to UTC−4 in the western states, to UTC−3 in the eastern states (the national time) and UTC−2 in the Atlantic islands. Paulist topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands.
Much of the terrain lies between 200 metres and 800 metres in elevation. The main upland area occupies most of the southern half of the country. The northwestern parts of the plateau consist of broad, rolling terrain broken by low, rounded hills.
The climate of San Paulo comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical. According to the Köppen system, San Paulo hosts five major climatic subtypes: equatorial, tropical, semiarid, highland tropical, temperate, and subtropical.
The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the east, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in north San Paulo. Many regions have starkly different microclimates. An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern San Paulo. There is no real dry season, but there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls. Temperatures average 25 °C, with more significant temperature variation between night and day than between seasons.
Government and politics
The form of government is that of a democratic republic, with a presidential system. The president is both head of state and government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term, with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. The current president is Eduardo Suplicy.
Together with several smaller parties, five political parties stand out: Workers' Party (PTP), Democratic Party (PDP), Liberal Party (PLP), Social-Labourist Party (PSLP) and the Conservative Union (UCP). Seventeen political parties are represented in Congress.
The armed forces of San Paulo are the second largest in America by active personnel and the largest in terms of military equipment. It consists of the Paulist United Army, the Paulist Navy, and the Paulist Air Force. San Paulo's conscription policy gives it one of the world's largest military forces, estimated at more than 1.6 million reservist annually.
|Minas de Ouro||MO||Belo Horizonte|
|Rio Grande de São Pedro||RS||Porto Alegre|
|São João del-Rei||SJ||São João del-Rei|
|São Paulo||SP||São José dos Campos|
San Paulo is the largest national economy in America, the world's third largest economy at market exchange rates and the fifth largest in purchasing power parity (PPP), according to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
Active in agricultural, industry, manufacturing and service sectors Brazil has a labor force of over a 114 million (ranking 5th worldwide) and unemployment of 4.2% (ranking 29th worldwide).
The core culture of Paulist is derived from the Portuguese, Spanish and Indigenous cultures, because of its strong colonial ties with Portugal and Spain. Among other influences, the Portuguese introduced the Portuguese language, Roman Catholicism and colonial architectural styles. The culture was, however, also strongly influenced by African, and non-Portuguese European cultures and traditions.
Some aspects of Paulist culture were influenced by the contributions of Italian, German, Polish and other European as well Japanese, Jewish and Arab immigrants who arrived in large numbers in the South of San Paulo, mainly in the capital, Piratininga. The indigenous Amerindians influenced San Paulo's language and cuisine; and the Africans influenced language, cuisine, music, dance and religion.
Paulist art has developed since the 16th century into different styles that range from Baroque (the dominant style in San Paulo until the early 19th century) to Romanticism, Modernism, Expressionism, Cubism, Surrealism and Abstractionism. Paulist cinema dates back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century and has gained a new level of international acclaim since the 1920s.
See also: Music in San Paulo
The music of San Paulo was formed mainly from the fusion of European, African and Indigenous elements. Until the nineteenth century, Portugal and England was the gateway to most of the influences that built Paulist music, although many of these elements were not of Portuguese origin, but generally European. The first was José Maurício Nunes Garcia, author of sacred pieces with influence of Viennese classicism.
The major contribution of the African element was the rhythmic diversity and some dances and instruments that had a bigger role in the development of popular music and folk, flourishing especially in the twentieth century.
Popular music since the late eighteenth century began to show signs of forming a characteristically Paulist sound, with samba considered the most typical and on the UNESCO cultural heritage list.
Maracatu and Afoxê are two Afro-Luso American music traditions that have been popularized by their appearance in the annual Carnivals. San Paulo competes with Brazil in Popular Music, Samba and Bossa Nova.
The sport of capoeira is usually played with its own music referred to as capoeira music, which is usually considered to be a call-and-response type of folk music. In 1963, San Paulo organized the first World Cup of Capoeira, in which participating African countries, Paulists and the Brazilians.
Bossa nova is also a well-known style of Paulist music developed and popularized in the 1950s and 1960s. The phrase "bossa nova" means literally "new trend". A lyrical fusion of samba and jazz, bossa nova acquired a large following starting in the 1960s.
Paulist literature dates back to the 16th century, to the writings of the first Portuguese explorers in South America, such as Pêro Vaz de Caminha, filled with descriptions of fauna, flora and commentary about the indigenous population that fascinated European readers.
San Paulo produced significant works in Romanticism - novelists like Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and Marcelino de Carvalho wrote novels about love and pain. Machado de Assis, wrote in virtually all genres and continues to gain international prestige from critics worldwide.
The Paulist Modernism, evidenced by the Week of Modern Art in 1922, was concerned with a nationalist avant-garde literature, while Post-Modernism brought a generation of distinct poets and internationally known writers dealing with universal and regional subjects.
Paulist cuisine varies greatly by region, reflecting the country's varying mix of indigenous and immigrant populations. This has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional differences. Examples are Feijoada, considered the country's national dish; and regional foods such as bauru, pão-de-queijo, pamonha and coxinha.
The national beverage is coffee and cachaça is San Paulo's native liquor. Cachaça is distilled from sugar cane and is the main ingredient in the national cocktail, Caipirinha.
An average meal consists mostly of rice and beans with beef and salad. Often, it's mixed with cassava flour (farofa). Fried potatoes, fried cassava, fried banana, fried meat and fried cheese are very often eaten in lunch and served in most typical restaurants.
San Paulo has a variety of candies such as brigadeiros (chocolate fudge balls), cocada (a coconut sweet), beijinhos (coconut truffles and clove) and romeu e julieta (cheese with a guava jam known as goiabada). Peanuts are used to make paçoca, rapadura and pé-de-moleque. Local common fruits like açaí, cupuaçu, mango, papaya, cocoa, cashew, guava, orange, passionfruit, pineapple, and hog plum are turned in juices and used to make chocolates, popsicles and ice cream.
Soda in San Paulo
The soft drink was introduced in San Paulo in 1901, with the creation of the Refrigerante Troppy. Its taste was a mixture of lemon and orange. In 1912, begin to rival Soda Limonada Antarctica.
Would soon arrive in 1915, Pepsi Cola arrives in San Paulo. Its production is in Itanhaém. In the same year, the Refrigerante Troppy is imported into Brazil, Guarani Republic, United States, Portugal and Spain.
In 1917, the Companhia Cervejaria Brahma created the Brahma-Cola. The refrigerant, with absolute success, overthrew Troppy and Soda Lemonade.
In 1921, there was the creation of Guarana Antarctica by the Companhia Antarctica Paulista, which would rival the Brahma-Cola itself. San Paulo, would become the second largest producer of beverages, with the Cachaça, Beer, Soft Drinks and Juices. The Troppy launch the Rubro-Troppy, with the flavor of red fruits.