San Paulo, officially the United Republic of San Paulo (Portuguese: República Unida de São Paulo), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.
It is the world's seventh-largest country in geographical area and the fifth-largest country by population. It is the largest Portuguese-speaking country in the world, one of the two who speak portuguese in the America.
It is bordered by Chaco Republic and San Martin to the west; Bahia and the Equatorian Confederation to the northeast; Essequibo to the north; the Atlantic Ocean to the east and Argentina to the south.
The name came from the captaincy of São Paulo, at the time of the colonial Brazil. The country's name means the name of Saul of Tarsus, or Paul the Apostle. The first territories in San Paulo were the Captaincy of São Vicente, Captaincy of Santo Amaro and the Captaincy of Itanhaém, part of the colonial Brazil.
The land then-called Brazil was claimed for the Portuguese Empire on 22 April 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral. The Portuguese reached the Mount Paschoal, at nowadays Ilheus in Bahia, and encountered indigenous peoples divided into several tribes, most of whom spoke languages of the Tupi–Guarani family, and fought among themselves. Though the first settlement was founded in 1532, colonization was effectively begun in 1534, when King Dom João III of Portugal divided the territory into the fifteen private and autonomous Captaincy Colonies of Brazil.
However, the decentralized and unorganized tendencies of the captaincy colonies proved problematic, and in 1549 the Portuguese king restructured them into the Governorate General of Brazil, a single and centralized Portuguese colony in South America. In the first two centuries of colonization, Indigenous and European groups lived in constant war, establishing opportunistic alliances in order to gain advantages against each other.
Dissatisfied by the end of the Iberian Union, the inhabitants of San Paulo acclaimed Amador Bueno to be the king of San Paulo, in which the coronation was accepted and the new king declared independence.
See also: Independence War
John IV, in 1641, declared war on San Paulo, trying to keep their independence. The Paulistas pursued the Portuguese who would not give support to King Amador Bueno. The Paulistas struck a deal with Maurice of Nassau, to the aid of their independence.
At the end of the 17th century, the bandeirantes who explored the forests in San Paulo, at the Minas de Ouro, São João del-Rei, Mato Grosso and Goiás region found gold. This era was known as the Paulist Gold Rush (Portuguese: Corrida do ouro/Ciclo do ouro).
With the export of sugarcane, cattle and gold, San Paulo was a nation that has progressed in the foreign trade in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Industrialization and the American Independence
A paulist bourgeois called Amílcar Barroso in his stay in England had the idea to bring industries to the growing Kingdom of San Paulo. The First Industry of San Paulo was the Companhia de Carvão Barroso (Coal Industry), which is the current district of Santo Amaro (in the City of São Paulo).
In 1777, the paulists went to war against the Great Britain, in support of the United States. The American Revolutionary War gave the opening to other struggles for independence in the Americas.
In the 19th century, San Paulo was already considered the most powerful nation in Latin America. Its economy grew thanks to its primary sector and the industrial sector. In 1826, he created with the United States and the South American nations, the SAU (South American Union).
In 1831, was inaugurated the first industry in its colony in Africa.
From 1835 to 1874, San Paulo faced a long period of regional wars. The Guerra Gaúcha, 1st Platine War, 2nd Platine War, and finally the Great South-American War.
Tensions on the First World War increased. Since the treaties as the Berlin Conference, the Franco-Prussian War and the expansion of influence, trade and colonial.
For San Paulo, the unequal division at the Berlin Conference was a synonym for war for them. When redefined the territories of the paulists in Africa, the threats were withdrawn.
The First World War breaks out, San Paulo, enters the war in 1916, sending naval squadrons to the German Oceania, invading together the Japanese, the Carolines and the Marianas Isles. San Paulo also sent his army to fight in Europe, the International Force of San Paulo (FISP), Paulist Air Force (FAP) and the Paulist 'Grand' Navy (GMP).
After the First World War, San Paulo was considered to be a potential great power, as well as being one of the only powers that had not destabilized its economy during the crisis of 1929, due to its primary sector.
San Paulo entered the Second World War in 1941, sending troops (Armed Forces and Expeditionary of San Paulo (FAESP), Paulist Air Force (FAP), San Paulo's Navy (MSP)). The justification of his entry was the bombing of its vessels in the Atlantic and off the coast of Portugal.
After World War II, San Paulo was already established as a great power. In 1946, San Paulo domined the Bavarian region, first as a province. In 1951 has evolved into a domain, and in 1967, became a state satellite. Its independence, de facto, just came in 1977.
Military Government (1964-1976)
In 1964, the king Carlos I and the incumbent João Goulart were surprised about the military's plot. Threatened, Goulart flew to the south of the country and the king went to exile in Argentina, then the United Kingdom.
Castelo Branco (1964-1967)
The Hard-line regime (1967-1972)
Presidential deaths (1972-1976)
In 1972, the president Olimpio Mourão died in 28 May 1972 at the Bandeirantes Palace in San Paulo. The cause was natural death. His government was known by a massive wave of disappearances, mysterious deaths and authoritarianism. Subsequently, his vice-president Médici, assumed the office and proceeded with the same way as the previous in office, but also investing in the economy. He named Augusto Rademaker to the vice-presidency, although it must have been the President of the Chamber of Deputies.
A few months later, a tragedy occurs in Rio de Janeiro. The president Médici parks his car at Avenida Atlântica with his wife and first-lady, Scila Médici. In two minutes, a car bomb, next to them, explodes and injures severely the president and wife. Taken to the nearest hospital, after three days, the president couldn't resist and died. The event was categorized as a terrorist attack. The suspect was never found.
Instead of Rademaker assume the office, Sylvio Frota, supported by the Brazilian government assumed. One day before the Independence Day and a few days before his first year in the office, his body was found with multiple shots.
With the death of four presidents in less than five years, the country was desestabilized. Urgently, the Senate elected the castelist general Ernesto Geisel, which in the same year, released the Pacote de Abril (Pack of April), releasing a half of the Senate being chosen by the people. One year later, signed the Lei da Anistia (Anisty Law) with the minister João Figueiredo, which conceded anisty to political prisoners, exilated people, and, torturers of the regime.
In 1978, the Brazilian government collapsed. Ernesto Geisel was obligated to release with urgency the Pack of São Bernardo, which extinguished the two-party system in San Paulo and established the direct elections to every political office (except Presidential elections).
New Republic (1978-Present)
In 1978, the presidential elections were still organized by an electoral college. The elected was the civil and military-supported Paulo Maluf, of the National Democratic Party, former governor of the Distrito Federal and the region of São Paulo.
Even with the end of dictatorship in the country, San Paulo continued its path in the Cold War. As influential countries of the United States' main system the anti-communist governments (or military dictatorships), the Soviet Union its influential countries had socialist governments, the influential countries in San Paulo were mostly democratic countries, which continued until the end of the Cold War.
Paulo Maluf (1978-1980)
The Government of Paulo Maluf worsened even more the crisis in the country, and several manifestations and movements like "MTL - Movimento dos Trabalhadores pela Liberdade", "Fora Maluf," "FLD - Frente Liberal pela Democracia", among others.
Maluf had as the main objective, pave roads, streets, avenues, and improvements on trains, subways, and the public transport. Your government was mainly criticized to be a prolongation of the previous dictatorship, also from giving offices to their people. He was the first impeached president.
Tancredo Neves (1982-1985)
In the 1982 elections, the military-supported candidate Aureliano Chaves, but was eventually massacred by the candidate Tancredo Neves. Otherwise Paulo Maluf, Tancredo Neves restructured the country, with massive reforms at industry and land.
Otherewise the restructuration of San Paulo, during his office, there were huge manifestations of the movement Diretas Já, demanding direct presidential elections. Tancredo Neves slightly supported the movement, although the Senate didn't approve.
Tancredo died in April 1985 being unable to complete his mandate. His vice-president, Hélio Garcia, assumed the office.
Hélio Garcia (1985-1986)
Hélio Garcia had mostly a point of view on liberalism, but small part of national industries were privatized. His government was basically a continuation of Tancredo Neves, with only minor changes. During his government, the direct elections were approved.
Ulysses Guimarães (1986-1990)
After the first direct democratic elections for president, the democratic candidate, Ulysses Guimarães ran over his old opponents, such as Brizola and Mário Covas, making it the first landslide victory of a candidate in history of San Paulo.
Leonel Brizola (1990-1994)
His government sacramented land reform, and invest heavily in the industrial sector and in education and refounding and pressing the basic reforms, Brizola was seen internationally as a reformist who played a key role in social and economic issues.
He was pre-candidate in the 1994 elections, but left due to health problems, leaving in its place, the future President Louis Inacio Lula da Silva.
Mário Covas (1994-1998)
Louis Inácio "Lula" da Silva (1998-2006)
The first president who came from the working class, Lula was a populist president. The approval of the "bolsa família" was one of the main weapons to eradicate the extreme poverty in San Paulo.
During his government approved the Maria da Penha law, which is applied against the aggression against women.
In 2001 (2006 OTL), was announced by the Petrosampa announced the discovery of pre-salt in the San Paulo's coast. The closing of the Rede Globo took place in his government, disrupt the political campaigns of Brizola and Lula.
Plínio de Arruda Sampaio (2006-2010)
The government of Plínio was one of the most recent. There was major investment in the country's education, creating the Bolsa Escola, which in addition to helping the entry of students in universities, facilitated the entry of low-income children in private schools.
He was re-elected in 2006 after defeating the Democratic Party candidate, José Serra. His influence in Catholicism in San Paulo was the cause of a great support during the elections.
Ciro Gomes (2010-)
San Paulo occupies a medium area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior, sharing land borders with Argentina to the south; Guarani Republic and San Martin to the west; New Granada to the northwest; and Essequibo to the north.
It also encompasses a number of oceanic archipelagos, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz. Its relief, climate, and natural resources make San Paulo geographically diverse. Including its Atlantic islands, San Paulo lies between latitudes 6°N and 34°S, and longitudes 28° and 74°W.
San Paulo is the seventh largest country in the world, and fourth largest in the Americas, with a total area of 8,515,767.049 km², including 55,455 km² of water. It spans three time zones; to UTC−4 in the western states, to UTC−3 in the eastern states (the national time) and UTC−2 in the Atlantic islands. Paulist topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands.
Much of the terrain lies between 200 metres and 800 metres in elevation. The main upland area occupies most of the southern half of the country. The northwestern parts of the plateau consist of broad, rolling terrain broken by low, rounded hills.
The climate of San Paulo comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical. According to the Köppen system, San Paulo hosts five major climatic subtypes: equatorial, tropical, semiarid, highland tropical, temperate, and subtropical.
The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the east, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in north San Paulo. Many regions have starkly different microclimates. An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern San Paulo. There is no real dry season, but there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls. Temperatures average 25 °C, with more significant temperature variation between night and day than between seasons.
Government and politics
The form of government is that of a democratic republic, with a presidential system. The president is both head of state and government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term, with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. The current president is Ciro Gomes.
Together with several smaller parties, five political parties stand out: Workers' Party (PTP), Democratic Party (PDP), Liberal Party (PLP), Socialist (PS) and the Conservative Union (UCP). Seventeen political parties are represented in Congress.
The armed forces of San Paulo are the second largest in America by active personnel and the largest in terms of military equipment. It consists of the Paulist United Army, the Paulist Navy, and the Paulist Air Force. San Paulo's conscription policy gives it one of the world's largest military forces, estimated at more than 1.6 million reservist annually.
|Districto Federal||DF||São Paulo de Piratininga|
|Minas Geraes||MG||Belo Horizonte|
|Rio de Janeiro||RJ||Rio de Janeiro|
|São João del-Rei||SJ||São João del-Rei|
|São Pedro||SP||Porto Alegre|