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The United Provinces of China or United China (中华合众国, Zhōnghuá Hézhòngguó) was an independent warlord state created in the Chinese provinces of Sichuan, Guizhou and eastern half of Xikang, It existed between 1920-1929.
Annexed by the Second Republic of China during the South Campaign for National Unity.
One of the reasons, besides the autonomy of the military cliques, was to create a federal republic of China. Guiyang, since 1912 was on the centers of federalist ideas. The three provinces (Sichuan, Guizhou and eastern half of Xikang) had provincial governments, that appointed the federal government.
In 1921 the Tripartite Agreement of Friendship, Commerce and Consular Relations was signed by South China, Yunnan and United Provinces of China.
The United Provinces of China were a relatively poor and economically undeveloped state. Grain, including rice and wheat, are the major products. Commercial crops include citrus fruits, sugarcanes, sweet potatoes, peaches and grape seeds. Sichuan also had large outputs of pork and silkworm cocoons. The United Provinces are rich in mineral resources, with major reserves of iron, titanium, vanadium, cobalt and lithium
According to the Constitution of 1921, the United Provinces of China is a federal state organized as follows:
The executive power resides in the President of the Republic. He is elected by a joint session of the Federal Electoral Assembly for a 6 year term. He names the President of the Executive Yuan and ministers and presides its meetings. He is the supreme commander of the armed force. The President can issue emergency legislation for its later approval by the Federal Legislative Assembly. He also approves emergency decrees issued by the Executive Yuan.
The legislative powers resides in the bicameral Federal Legislative Assembly. It is elected every 3 years, but it can extend its mandate or dissolved by the President. Its composed of a representatives directly elected by the people that form the House of Delegates and senators from the provinces that form the House of the Provinces. Men and women over 21 years old and native of South China have voting rights and political rights.
A Supreme Court, nominated by the President on advice of the House of the Provinces, directs and manages all courts of justice. A State Prosecutor, named by the Executive Yuan and full voting member of it, is in charge of supervising, guiding and enforcing public prosecution on behalf of the State and the investigation of criminal cases.
United Provinces of China is administratively is divided in provinces. These have an elected Provincial Governor and a Provincial Parliament. Local elected government exists in the counties and municipalities.