An Caigeann Rioghachd mu Alba is Sasainn
The United Kingdoms of England & Scotland
Timeline: Welsh History Post Glyndwr
Flag of Great Britain (1707-1800) Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland
Flag of the United Kingdom of England & Scotland National Arms of the United Kingdom (English Version)

Dieu et Mon Droit (English)

Anthem "God Save the King"
Capital London
Largest city London
Other cities Edinburgh, Manchester, York
  others Scots Gaelic, Cornish & Welsh (in Border Regions)
  others Roman Catholic (minority)
Government Constitutional Monarchy
  legislature Parliament (Houses of Commons & Lords)
King of the United Kingdom Charles III
  Royal house: Windsor
Prime Minister
Population approx. 58, 156, 200 
Currency Sterling
The United Kingdom of England and Scotland was born from the personal union of crowns in 1601 when James VI of Scotland claimed the English throne following the death of his cousin Elizabeth I. The new state continued in its personal union format until the reign of Queen Anne who made the union a full political union. At that point, the Anglo-Scottish state also controlled Ireland. During the Georgian period the entire island of Britain was ruled from London following the defeat and conquest of Wales.
Floral Badge of Great Britain

The Floral Emblem of the Anglo-Scotish State

During this period (1718-1796) following the Treaty of Manchester (November 21st 1720) the country was called the United Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland (in political short hand, the Imperial State of Britain) with the king, George I using the titles King of the Britons (a title previously claimed by the Welsh Kings) with the full title of the monarch being "by the Grace of God, Emperor of the British Isles, King of the United Kingdoms of England & Scotland, King of Ireland, Wales and France, Prince of Gwynedd, Duke of Lancaster & Normandy, Defender of the Faith, etc". Following the successful 2nd Welsh War of Independence (1759-96) the monarchs and states title changed again back to "The United Kingdom of England & Scotland", with the monarch dropping the Anglo-Scottish's crowns claim to its previous French & Welsh titles.

British Imperial Flag 1720-1796

The Imperial British Flag (1720-96)

In the 20th Century, the monarch's title changed again, though this time the state's name was unchanged following the Irish War of Independence which saw the island of Ireland gain its freedom. The later part of the 20th Century would see the Anglo-Scottish kingdom under its king Edward VII fight the Nazi threat and then in the late 1970's, the childless king would pass the throne onto his niece's eldest son, Charles, who ascended the throne in 1972.

The Relationship with the Kingdom of Wales

Wales Post 1409

Wales during reign of Owain Glyndwr

The English State has had a fraught relationship with Wales since the Welsh kingdom broke away from England in 1408. The Treaty of London (1408) established the Welsh Principality as being a vassal state to the English Crown. Owain Glyndwr had a stormy but ultimately peaceful relationship with Henry IV, with Maredudd, Owain's son and heir, living safely in the English Court until the death of Henry in 1413. With Henry V now on the English Throne Maredudd was given leave to return to Wales. The two young men had grown up together at court (there only being four years between them) As such, with the death of Owain in 1419, Wales and England had two rulers who were closely in accord with each other. Both men honoured the other and understood their relative positions. Whilst still the Edling, Maredudd had served with Henry in France and Henry had happily allowed him leave to return to Wales to be crowned as Prince of Wales. Maredudd also was happy to give his oath to Henry as vassal to the English Crown, with Henry restoring Caernarfon Castle to the young Prince as a gift.

With the death of Henry V and the ascension of the infant Henry VI however Anglo-Welsh relationships altered again. Maredudd was not tied to the new king in the same manner as he was to Henry V. Taking advantage of the situation, Maredudd looked to take the southern counties of Wales still under the control of the English Crown. The Pembrokeshire War would see Maredudd take Ty Dewi, Penfro, Ystrad Towy and Cydweli back into the Welsh fold as well as his elevation to King. The same break with England that allowed this war to proceed also allowed Maredudd to marry into the Percy family thus giving an extra fillet to Anglo-Welsh relationships as this marriage had originally been mooted during the War of Independence between Henry Hotspur and Owain, but banned under the terms of the Treaty of London. Maredudd successfully played the English disunity to Wales' benefit and Maredudd backed Henry VI during the Wars of the Roses (ostensibly down to his oath of loyalty, but in reality due to the simple fact that Henry was usable and Richard of York hated Maredudd with a passion).

Following on from Maredudd, Owain ap Maredudd ruled in relative peace with England. Balancing Wales on the edge of the Wars of the Roses Owain succeeded in claiming the last of the territory his father had set out to take. Namely Marcha Salopia. This fell to Owain by marriage. During Owain's reign the last breaking of the feudal link to the English Crown was broken as well.

Henry Tudor, a descendant of Maredudd Tudor who fought for Owain Glyndwr rose to the English throne. Henry's grandfather, Owain Tewdwr had quarreled with Maredudd and left Wales to seek his fortune in England. By chance Owain entered into the English Court and married the widow of Henry V (Catherine Valois). Their child (Edmund) married into the Beaufort family (descendants of John of Gaunt and therefore Edward III). With the chaos of the Wars of Roses soon the only Lancastrian claimant left was Edmunds son, Henry Tudor (who married into the senior Yorkist line in order to further legitimise his claim). With Henry as king of England there seemed to be a chance of an equal peace between the two countries. It was during Owain's reign as well that the last Westminster Act of Parliament was passed in relation to Wales. The 1480 treaty of Sycharth (signed whilst Edward IV was king) legalised the various Welsh laws passed by the Welsh Senedd during Owain's reign.

Under Hywel I, Welsh superiority over England reached its zenith. The 16 year old monarch extracted from Henry the Treaty of Bath, which ceded what would become the province of Gwlad yr Haf (Bristol and Bath) from the English king in return for Welsh money and arms. With Welshmen on the thrones of both countries there was an upturn in the economic relationship. Trade flowed evenly across the border, though there was a negative blip following the Rebellion of the March which saw Henry cut trade with Wales for some months, however, such a cut could not remain for long and soon England traded freely with the Welsh kingdom. Many within the English court agitated for war against the Welsh, but whilst Henry VII remained king such calls were ignored. With Henry VIII came a new dynamic. Like the change in kings during Maredudd's reign, Henry bore no loyalty or respect for Hywel but in general terms the relationship between the kingdoms remained unchanged.

The 1st & 2nd Anglo-Welsh Wars

Coat of Arms of Henry VIII of England (1509-1547) Early reign

Henry VII

With the minority of the king of Wales and with Henry's natural inclination towards autocracy (already dreaming of his "British Empire" (Henry used the Red Dragon as supporter of his coat of arms and even at one stage his daughter Elizabeth claimed the Welsh throne in a Pan-British coat of arms).

The first sign that Welsh dominance was at an end was the Treaty of Woodstock (signed Oct 29th 1513). In the shadow of the Scottish debacle at Flodden, the Regency Council signed this humiliating treaty on the young Hywel II's behalf, and thus English pre-dominance over the other states in Britain reasserted itself. With Henry's split from Rome however came new reasons to mistrust the Welsh. The Welsh Chancellor (Prince Rhys of Powys) began intriguing in English affairs, and with the Welsh Treaty of San Sebastian, became enemies of Henry and the English. During Henry's later reign, trade with the Welsh kingdom decreased, though local cross-border trade continued (especially between the two Worcesters)

The 1st Anglo-Welsh wars were fought in the light of the English Reformation and the Dissolution of the Monasteries and Wales acted as a supporter of Catholic rights. The war was largely a damp squib with some Welsh success'. The 1540 Treaty of Somerset confirmed the loss of some territory in Northern Somerset to Wales whilst Henry took great delight in acquiring the city of Bath for England. With the conclusion of the war however, Henry ensured that there was an increased flow of Protestant material reaching Wales in an effort to undermine the Welsh government. This policy continued under the reign of Henry IX as well. During the first few months of Henry's reign, the Welsh would try again under their king, Rhodri, to deprive the Crown of more territory. This, the 2nd Anglo-Welsh war was even more of a dire effort than the 1st. With neither side applying enough pressure, men or arms to finish the conflict. The war ended with neither king long to live, with Henry dying in '53 and Rhodri in '54.

Catholic Togetherness

As Mary was a Roman Catholic her assumption of the English throne did usher in a new period of harmony, especially as the new Welsh monarch was a fellow Queen (Elen). Such Catholic solicitude however, did not translate to bilateral relations. The English-Welsh relationship remained as strained as it had been under the reigns of Henry and Edward. It took major trade concessions from the Welsh before Mary was prepared to allow cross border trade to resume, however once it did there was a flourishing of trade. Whilst Mary reigned, there was an end to the Protestant bombarding of the Welsh border towns, but with the death of Mary and the arrival of Elizabeth, there entered again a new dynamic.


Elizabeth 1st Three Countries Coat of Arms

The "British Empire" Arms of Elizabeth I

Elizabeth, as Queen, increased the flow of protestant material reaching Wales. She also decided to send a message to the Welsh by altering her Coat of Arms. Whereas her father and grandfather had used the Red Dragon of Cadwalader, she used the Glyndwr Golden Dragon as her supporter. She also displayed her "Imperial" coat of arms, where she showed her own claim to the Welsh crown. From her ancestor Tudor Hen, Lord of Penmynydd she was descended from the Kings of Gwent, the Princes of Deheubarth, the Princes of Gwynedd, and the last king of Tegeingle (Flintshire). As as result of this lineage she was more than able to post a rival claim to the House of Mathrafal. And in due course of her reign Elizabeth did. Though the rivalry between England and Wales was less marked in this period, which also saw trade reaching its highest point since Welsh independence, Elizabeth did post arms showing how she could lay claim to the Welsh throne should she wish.

One important aspect of Elizabeth's reign was the birth of the Ulster plantations. The seeding of protestants in Ireland. One direct result was a flow of Irish refugee's to Wales, the only Catholic country left in the British Isles. Such a flow did cause a rising of tensions with England. England remained neutral during the Welsh Wars of Religion (The Protestant Uprising 1598-1600) although Elizabeth was sympathetic to the cause espoused by King Marc, and ultimately this neutrality bought a measure of peace when the Catholic Dafydd secured the Welsh throne in 1600.

The Stuarts

Anglo-Welsh relations grew peaceful with the advent of the House of Deheubarth to the Welsh throne. This was helped by the marriage of the Welsh king to one of the daughters of King James of England & Scotland. Kingdoms brought to peace by the successful and happy marriage of Dafydd to Princess Margaret Stuart. It also meant that Hywel III was related to Charles I of England, which in turn helped foster greater friendship between both countries. During the Civil War, Wales sided first with Charles and then via a more neutral stance the Government. This was a period of instability in terms of political relations between the countries. Trade continued to flow as before but in terms of politics, one month Wales and England were allies, the next they were at war. Events oscillated until the advent of James II. With the prospect of two Catholic Monarchs, the English removed James for William of Orange, but Wales continued to support the Jacobite Cause. With this, whilst not providing a permanent breach, the English Parliament viewed Wales with distrust. Something increased when in 1703 the Welsh parliament was removed leaving just a Catholic Autocrat on the throne. With the rise of Dafydd of Wales there entered a new period of Anglo-Welsh relations with Dafydd laying claim to the English throne. The first major test was the Gower Uprising. Although Wales was a Roman Catholic nation there were pockets of protestants throughout the country. Mainly in the English border regions, there were also sizable communities in Gower (Welsh Gwyr). In 1709 a new protestant tax caused the Gower to rise in rebellion against Dafydd and the English government watched in dismay as the Welsh king raised mercenaries to put down the rebellion. Parliament complained long and loud against the Welsh actions, and trust in the Welsh king dropped.

Whilst this was happening, a far more important crisis was also developing. The Act of Succession and Exclusion crisis coupled with the Gower Uprising brought Anglo-Welsh relations to a complete nadir. Dafydd was a Roman Catholic heir to both the English and Scottish thrones via his descent from Margaret Tudor (Queen of Scotland but born Princess of England) and James V. Whilst the Act of Succession 1701 excluded all Catholics from the English throne, the fact remained that Dafydd was an active threat as a ruling monarch of a neighbouring country. The exclusion crisis in 1707 prompted Dafydd to press his claim to the now combined Anglo-Scottish throne. Between 1707 and 1718 he added the arms of the United Kingdom to his own and during this period there was little high level contact between courts.

Welsh interference in the succession crisis of 1714 further raised the spectre of an aggressive Catholic nation on the English flanks. With the death of Queen Anne, the succession was fixed on George of Hanover, Dafydd attempted to aid James III with men, arms and money, but was too stingey to make much of an impact on the Uprising of 1715. The simple attempt however was enough to persuade the new king, George, that Dafydd and the Welsh were to be considered enemies to his throne. This was reinforced by Dafydd's increasing rearmament of the Welsh Army. Here though the Welsh misjudged the situation. With the Welsh rearmament only a few years old, the regiments undermanned, the arsenals under stocked, and the logistical system still incomplete Dafydd decided to aid yet again James III.

The 3rd Anglo-Welsh War

As with the two previous Anglo-Welsh wars this was again a war of Welsh aggression. Where this differed was that the two previous wars had been about territory and about edging closer to Cornwall. This war was about the Anglo-Scottish throne and the attempt to impose a Catholic monarch on it. To start with there was little action. The Welsh king placed his army within his own borders near the old English fortress of Shrewsbury (Welsh: Amwythig). Parliament ordered the Duke of Newcastle to take command of the Ango-Scottish army sent to counter the Welsh threat. Following two months of negotiations, the Welsh moved against Newcastle.

The Battle of Shrewsbury (23rd June 1718) saw a rampant Newcastle soundly defeat the Welsh king. With the Welsh fleeing southwards, Newcastle saw a way to prevent further Welsh incursions. Acting against his orders from London, the young Duke moved his army into Wales. Quickly taking the northern March (old Shropshire), northern Powys and the eastern half of the territory of Gwynedd. At a stroke Newcastle now commanded the fortress of Shrewsbury, the armament factories of Wrecsam, and laid siege to the northern arsenal in Conwy.

Parliament and the King had long thought that total war was likely and with Newcastle advancing in the North, the King authorised the Duke of Cornwall (HRH the Prince George Augustus) to advance with a southern army against the Welsh. The Southern army was split between Cornwall and the Earl Cadogan. Cornwall took a northern wing into the Welsh territories north of the Severn River, whilst Cadogan moved against the Welsh lands south of that.

Ranged against the Duke of Cornwall was the southern lord, Prince Cystennin of Glamorgan. With few forces to command the Prince of Glamorgan was powerless to prevent Cornwall from liberating the ancient English towns of Worcester and Hereford, restoring these towns and counties to the Crown. By August, the old English county of Monmouthshire had fallen to the Duke, when the Welsh attempted to stem to English tide. At the Glamorgan town of Cardiff, Dafydd made his last stand. For all his bluster just the year previously, the Welsh king was little match for the army of HRH Prince George, Duke of Cornwall. On the 28th August, the English army routed the Welsh army at Cardiff, scattering their forces and killing Dafydd.

During this time, Cadogan had been busy south of the Severn River. He quickly took the countryside of Northern Somerset, taken by the Welsh in the previous Anglo-Welsh wars and he also took the hinterland of South Gloucestershire surrounding the city and fortress of Bristol. Cadogan now settled into the task of subduing the venerable fortress of Bristol which fell in the December of 1718.

In the north, the Duke of Newcastle had also succeeded in crossing the Conwy River and had moved through northern Gwynedd, taking the Royal Palace at Garth Celyn and the fortress, city and palace of Caernarfon, whilst in the south, the Welsh (under the regency of the Prince of Powys) had begun to withdraw towards west Wales, stopping to mount a defence of Swansea, which fell after the battle of Swansea (15th September 1718) The Welsh Regent died during that battle to be replaced by the Prince of Glamorgan. Prince Constantine of Glamorgan ordered the evacuation of the senior nobility, abdicating their right to rule Wales with their flight to France. By the end of 1718, the Duke of Cornwall controlled southern Wales up to the fortress of Pembroke, whilst the Duke of Newcastle controlled north Wales with the exception of the territory surrounding Harlech and the Llyn peninsula.

The war would officially be ended with the Treaty of Manchester, signed on the 21st November 1721, upon which date a new country was born.

The Empire of the British Isles - The United Kingdoms of Great Britain (1721-1796)

On the 21st November 1721, the senior Welsh nobles remaining in Wales signed the Treaty of Manchester. This treaty allowed the full union of the Welsh crown with the Anglo-Scottish crown, creating the Emperor of the British Isles. The first Emperor was George I of the United Kingdom, who became "George, by the Grace of God, King of the United Kingdom of England & Scotland, King of Ireland, Wales and France, Emperor of the British Isles, Defender of the Faith, etc". Wales was to be totally represented at a national level and as such the dignity of Members of Parliament was restored to the Welsh political class (something denied it by the previous Welsh state).

The first decade of British rule was spent in trying to pacify the Welsh to Anglo-Scottish rule. The 1720's were a time of rebellions in Wales with the Governor-General (Duke of Newcastle 1720-27 & the Duke of Norfolk 1727-32) engaged in the pacification of Wales and the engaging of the political class into buying into the Union of the British Kingdoms.

The 1730's saw both continued rebellions against Anglo-Scottish rule but also a continued improvement of Welsh engagement. Tax revenue began to be generated on a steady basis and Welshmen were enrolled in the British Army and Navy. The decade also saw the Gwynedd Rebellion. London attempted to again engage the Welsh political classes and indeed the 1730's saw some native Welsh MP's journey to London to sit in both the Lords and the Commons. The Marches and the lands of former Somerset were subjected to intense Anglicanisation, though the by now native Welsh population of these regions resisted. Ironically, the Welsh population of the North Coast were bolstered by support from their Cornish neighbours.

The Duke of Norfolk died in 1732 and was replaced by the Duke of Rutland but not before he ordered the removal of the first born sons of all the remaining Welsh lords to the Court in London for intense indoctrination.

The Duke of Rutland presided over a period of relative peace and prosperity for Wales in this period. The country was mainly at peace, with the former monarch Rhys not posing a risk to the stability of the realm. In 1738 Rutland was replaced by the Earl of Cholmondeley after having succeeded where both Newcastle & Norfolk had failed. Wales was quiet.

Cholmondeley would go on to be the longest serving Governor-General (known to the Welsh as the Gwaedlyd Llywiawdwr or the Bloody Governor). To the English Parliament he was a stern loyal and most able Governor of a rebellious disloyal and traitorous people. The start of his period in Wales saw the Pembroke Rebellion and the landing of the former Welsh monarch, Rhys. Cholmondeley personally led the forces against the Archbishop of St Davids. The aftermath of this most serious threat to Pan-British security led Cholmondeley to legislate against the Welsh tongue, banning it from public life. He also ordered the closure of all monastic houses in Wales as nests of sedition. The Roman Catholic Church to which the Welsh still clung was monitored closely.

Recent History

Edward VII of England

King Edward VII of England & Scotland

In 1936 George V of England & Scotland died, and his eldest son, the right-wing leaning Edward, Duke of Cornwall, succeeded him to the British Throne. As monarch he was indifferent to Wales, knowing Iago for the Anglophobe he was, although the two of them shared many a viewpoint. During the Great War (English: World War Two) he was tied by Government policy to gainsay his natural leanings to the political right. After the war however Edward was enthusiastic in his attempt to help rebuild the British state. In this he was aided by his brothers, the Dukes of York and Gloucester. With the death of York in 1952, Elizabeth of York became the default heir, though this was not recognised by elevation to the Duchy of Cornwall. York's daughter, Princess Elizabeth was a rising star in the 1950's & 60's. Seen as the young ambassador for the House of Windsor her personal popularity rose whilst the kings remained constant. In 1964, the king was finally able to publicly acknowledge his mistress (Wallis Simpson), though the problem of marriage and a heir still dogged the King. In 1969, against the established laws of succession, Edward formally adopted Charles of York, Princess Elizabeth's eldest son. Raising him to the position of Duke of Cornwall and having an Act of Parliament passed legalising the alteration to the laws of succession (which should have resulted in Elizabeth succeeding him).

During the 1960's, the state of the Union between England and Scotland began to deteriorate. Scottish politicians began to agitate for a return of a Scottish Parliament to redress what they saw as the abandonment of Scotland by the English dominated Union Parliament in Westminster. To counter these Republican and Nationalistic drives north of the border, Edward adopted Elizabeth's eldest daughter. Anne was raised to the rank of title of Princess of Scotland & Great Steward. These were traditionally the titles granted to the heir of the Scottish throne and although the Letters Patent, granting these titles were clear on the now subservient nature of these titles to that of the Duke of Rothesay (Charles' Scottish title) it was an important move to countering moves to independence.

1974 to Present Day

Charles succeeded to the British Throne as Charles III. He is sometimes known in Wales as Charles IV due to
Charles III of England

Charles III of England & Scotland

Welsh recognition of the Stuart exile claimants until the 1796 Treaty of Shrewsbury. As king he has had a troubled reign, with increasing territorial ambitions by both Cornwall and Scotland. In Cornwall, the Cornish Republican Party (aided by Wales) agitates for greater autonomy within the British State (though a small number agitate for Union with Wales). In Scotland, since her elevation to the title of Princess of Scotland & Great Steward of Scotland, Princess Anne had become a champion of Scotland.
Anne, Princess & Great Steward of Scotland

Princess Anne of Scotland

Granted by her Letters Patent the use of the Palace of Holyrood during the 1980's Anne began to actively agitate for greater Scottish political freedoms and in the 1990's she championed the drive towards the Referendum which led ultimately to the re-creation of the Scottish Parliament in 1999. Feted by the SNP she had become the visible symbol of Scotland, much to the displeasure of her brother in London. The strains of trying to maintain the Union between the two states began to drain Charles health however. In 2008 he came close to abdicating in favor of his eldest son, William. As the new century progressed. the SNP in Scotland gained ground in each election, with Anne acting as Princess of Scotland and opening each new session of Parliament and acting more and more as a monarch of an independent country. In 2011, the SNP finally gained total control of the Scottish Parliament and began pushing for a dissolution of the Union. As a result in Scotland, Anne began to be referred to as Anne II of Scotland in her own right, although she still only referred to herself as Princess of Scotland. The continuing pressures on the United Kingdom continued to dominate the internal political dimension with family "conference" becoming heated as William, Duke of Cornwall defended his fathers position as King of the United Kingdom against his aunt's position as Princess of Scotland and increasingly de facto Queen of Scots. Since 2010, Anne's son, Prince Peter, Duke of Edinburgh began to be involved with these conferences.

The Break Up of the United Kingdom of England & Scotland

The Scottish referendum of 2012 saw the SNP and the "Yes" vote win by a slim majority. The final results saw Scotland vote 58% to 42% in favor of independence. The Scottish First Minister, Alex Salmond, led the negotiation with the Westminster Government and on the 1st January 2015 following the conclusion of those talks Scotland formally declared its separation from the former United Kingdom. The following day, 2nd January 2015, Anne was declared as Queen of Scots as Anne II.

Relations between the now separate kingdoms has remained cordial if sometimes strained, with Charles and Anne no longer on speaking terms following her acceptance of the offer from the Scottish government of the throne of Scotland.

The Cornish Question

The South-West of England

Map of Devon and Cornwall

The English counties of Devon and Cornwall (Welsh: Dyfnaint a Chernyw) have since Owain Glyndwr's first success' in the 1st Welsh War of Independence proven to be problematic towards the English Crown. Since the successes of Rhodri in the 2nd Anglo-Welsh wars whereby the territories of Gwlad yr Haf and more specifically Dyfnaint Glan Hafren (formerly Northern Somerset) were added to the Welsh Crown then the "Cornish Question" has remained on the English political scene. The close presence of the Welsh in the North Coast territory has helped to bolster the idea of Cornish identity and maintained the Cornish language into the 21st Century. During the 2nd Welsh War of Independence there was a movement both within Wales and Cornwall itself to extend the war to the English South West and for some members of the Welsh political elite the idea of "Aduniad Prydeinig" or British Reunion has continued well into the modern era. Following the formal restoration of Welsh independence in 1796, the Welsh State had to renounce any claims to "British" kingship and any claim to any Cornish title (some monarchs had previously included the title Dug Cernyw with their regnal titles). Although this formal renouncement was concluded in 1796, the close geographical nature of the Welsh North Coast to Cornwall meant that a close local relationship was maintained. During the reforms of the 1880's and 1890's when Welsh education was undergoing a radical overhaul, philanthropists from Wales (including Tomos ap Ceredig Tomos of Caerodor) set up schools in Cornwall and Devon dedicated to educating in Cornish. Such moves were designed to counter English moves to educate the Cornish language into extinction (laws passed in 1881 tried to ban the use of Cornish in schools).
Linguistic Map of Devon and Cornwall

Linguistic Map of Cornwall and Devon

As such the Cornish language survived into the 20th Century in rude health. The schools of Dyfnaint a Chernyw today educate in three languages. Within Cornwall proper, over half of schools are Cornish medium schools teaching both Cornish as a first language with Welsh and English as secondary languages. In North Devon and Torridge almost a quarter of schools are Cornish medium with strong Welsh language links. Southern Devon has some Cornish medium schools but most of the English medium schools offer a Cornish or Welsh language qualification.

With the 1920's and the involvement of Wales in the Irish War of Independence there grew in Cornwall & Devon itself a home movement dedicated to at least home rule if not political union with Wales. The hope was that Iago would aid his Celtic cousins in the same way that he had aided the Greeks in their re-conquest of Constantinople and the Irish in their fight against the English. In spite of pressure from the Lords of Dyfnaint Glan Hafren and Gwlad yr Haf, Iago resisted adding yet another war to his name. Following the outbreak of war in Europe, Cornish demands for self government were shelved in the greater fight against the Nazi threat.

The period of 1945-65 was one of decline for Cornish political groups. Welsh investment continued to flow across the border and helped to sustain the local South-West economy but little else. During the late 60's a new generation began the new fight for Cornish identity. Men such as Talan Dynham led new parties such as the Cornish Republican Party whilst others still fought for union with Wales (such as Jowan Nankervis and the Union Party). By the 1990's Kernweig Repobilak Withak (Cornish Republican Party) had two MP's elected and the neighbouring Densher Withak (Devon Party) whilst not having any MP's yet has several councilors to its name. With the re-establishment of a Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh and more recently the Scottish Kingdom under Anne II, there has come increasing pressure from Cornish Parties, MPs and pressure groups for some form of devolved administration. There has also been for the first time in generations active support for such groups from the mainstream Welsh political parties . The question remains how much devolution and where. Large parts of western and northern Devon are as Cornish as Cornwall but to allow a devolved regional set up to border the Welsh State would raise even more questions on the future of England's remaining "Celtic" fringe.

Monarchs of England and then the United Kingdom of England & Scotland

The below lists show the kings and queens of the two kingdoms of England and Scotland. The later only from the time of the Stuart Union (1601-1703)

Kings of England 1409-1601

  1. Henry V
  2. Henry VI (1st Reign)
  3. Edward IV (1st Reign)
  4. Henry VI (2nd Reign)
  5. Edward IV (2nd Reign)
  6. Edward V
  7. Richard III
  8. Henry VII
  9. Henry VIII
  10. Henry IX
  11. Mary I
  12. Elisabeth

Kings of England and Kings of Scotland (pre-Union)

  1. James I & VI
  2. Charles I
  3. Interregnum
  4. Charles II
  5. James II & VII
  6. William III & Mary II
  7. Anne (last monarch holding the separate titles of Queen of England and Queen of Scots)

Kings of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland

  1. Anne (Became the first Queen of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland)
  2. George I - 1st Emperor of the British Isles, King of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and France
  3. George II - 2nd Emperor of the British Isles, King of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and France
  4. George III - 3rd Emperor of the British Isles, King of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and France
  5. George IV
  6. William IV
  7. Victoria
  8. Edward VI
  9. George V
  10. Edward VII
  11. Charles III

Kings of the Kingdom of England

  1. Charles III

Kings of the Kingdom of Scotland

  1. Anne II