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This is part of the "Chamberlain's Legacy" Althist.
The United Britannic Commonwealth commonly known as UBC or the Commonwealth is a Federal Constitutional Monarchy that evolved from the British Empire. It is the largest Nation in the world, both in terms of territory and of population.
|Length||1945 - Present|
|National Motto||“Mother of the Free”|
Royal: God Save the Queen
|Currency||Commonwealth Pound Sterling (CPS) (£)|
|Government Type||Federal Parliamentary System and Constitutional Monarchy|
|Monarch||Queen Elizabeth II|
|High Chancellor of the Britannic Commonwealth||Lady Benazir Bhutto|
|Leader of the Opposition||Sir Raila Odinga|
The origins of the Commonwealth lie with the British Empire which established itself between the 17th and 19th Centuries. In 1886, the British Parliament passed the "Imperial Sitting Bill" which would mean that certain dominions would be able to send representatives to Parliament at Westminster to debate and vote on "issues of Imperial importance". Southern Ireland, Canada and Orange State were among the first territories to be granted "Parliament Status". The 1901 "Imperial Parliament Act" ordered a formal Parliament to be built as it's importance grew. Throughout this time, colonies and dominions were granted more powers. In 1901, the British government, with advice from the Imperial Council, introduced tariffs to counter the tariffs being introduced elsewhere. These tariffs meant the Empire became a Free Trade Area - a trading group that remains today. This not only brought the Empire closer together, it would lay the foundations of a continuing industrial giant.
The Great War
The Great War erupted in 1914 following the assassination of the Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Britain declared war on Germany following the invasion of Belgium. Having spent the early part of the century preparing for war, the Empire was able to grind Germany down with superior forces. Giving power to territories had proved successful, with coordination and the cohesion of forces being far smoother than the highly centralised forces of Germany. This, coupled with the armament of the 1900s proved a highly successful, if bloody war.
The Inter-War Years
Following The Great War, the Empire was left as the mediator of the world. The United States, having briefly taken part in the Great War during 1917, retreated into isolationism while Russia descended into the turmoil of Communist revolution. While casualties were not nearly as heavy as suffered by Germany or France, a more pacifist sentiment rose, seeing the much of the money spent on arms in the last decade, being spent on welfare. While Britain had enjoyed a strong welfare system since Joseph Chamberlains's reforms of the 1890's. The rest of the Empire however, was in dire need of welfare improvement. The result was regional governments across the Empire taking large steps to improve welfare. As a result, the 1920s and 1930s saw large strides in human development in the poorer regions. This would have very profound effects following the Great European War in terms of industrial production and for the years to come.
From Empire to Commonwealth
Following the Great European War, as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill had promised, there was a significant upheaval in the dealings of the Britannic Realms. The 1944 Conference of Delhi came to the conclusion that if the Realms were to remain together, then there would need to be reform so to create a new order. The 1945 Britannic Commonwealth Act saw to this, and a new super nation was born.
The Commonwealth is a Constitutional Monarchy. The Head of State is currently Queen Elizabeth II, the second monarch of the Commonwealth - the first being her father, King George VI. The Commonwealth has a very strong Parliament tradition, essentially being a form of Westminster Democracy. There are two main tiers of government: Commonwealth and Regional. The Commonwealth tier deals with the Commonwealth Budget, Defence, Foreign Affairs and Constitutional Advice- in which it is sovereign to pass laws to block any legislation introduced at the Regional Level. The Regional Level deals with regional economy, including Healthcare and Education as well as Policing, Environment and Transport. The Commonwealth is separated into x Regions. Each region has it's own Prime Minister and some have another Monarch, such as Tonga and Brunei. The role of the High Chancellor is much like that of a Prime Minister, that is, primus inter pares. The current High Chancellor is Sir Raila Odinga who has held the office since the Conservative Party won the last General Election in 2009.
The UBC is a multi-party democracy. The centre-right Democratic Party and the centre/centre-left Democratic Party dominate the Commonwealth Parliament, and to a lesser extent, the Regional Parliaments. There are however, several other significant parties represented in the Commonwealth Parliament. These are: the Socialist Party; the Separatist Coalition; the Bharatiya Janata (Hindu Nationalist) Party; the United Muslim League; Christian Alliance and the Communist Party.
High Chancellors of the Commonwealth
|Name||Party||Dominion (Regional Relm)||From||To||Terms served|
|Winston Churchill||Conservative||Great Britain (England)||1945||1953||2|
|Sidney Holland||Conservative||Australia (New Zealand)||1953||1954||1|
|Jawaharlal Nehru||Democrat||Indian Raj (Uttar Pradesh)||1954||1964||3|
|Arthur Calwell||Democrat||Australia (Victoria)||1964||1967||1|
|Junius Richard Jayewardene||Conservative||Indian Raj (Ceylon)||1967||1972||1|
|Pierre Trudeau||Democrat||Canada (Quebec)||1972||1977||1|
|Lee Kuan Yew||Conservative||Malaysia (Singapore)||1977||1988||3|
|Margaret Thatcher||Conservative||Great Britain (England)||1988||1994||2|
|FW de Klerk||Democrat||South Africa (Transvaal)||1994||1995||1|
|Lady Benazir Bhutto||Democrat||Indian Raj (Sindh)||1995||2002||2|
|Tony Blair||Democrat||Great Britain (Scotland)||2004||2009||1|
|Raila Odinga||Democrat||East Africa (Kenya)||2009||(present)||1|
Sphere of Influence
The Commonwealth is one of the five main Spheres of Influence. As well as its own territory, it has several Protectorates. These are states which directly rely on Britannic Aid and political and military support. These are Senegal, Nepal, Tibet and Bhutan. The UBC is also economic associates with The Arab Confederation, Norway, Denmark and Iceland.