Apvienotā Baltijas hercogiste (Lat.)
Balti Hertsogiriik (Est.)
United Baltic Duchy
Flag of Russia.svg
1918–1989 Flag of Estonia.svg
Flag of Latvia.svg
United Baltic Duchy flag.svg Baltic coat of arms.svg
Flag Coat of arms
The 3 states.
Capital Riga
Official language Estonian
Religion Christianity
Government Puppet state
Grand Duke
 - 1918-1951 Jānis Balodis
 - 1951-1985 Guagdilmnos Balodis
 - 1985-1989 Aleksander Balodis
Prime Minister
 - 1918-1944 Johan Laidoner
Legislature Saeima
 - Upper house House of lords
 - Lower house House of Peoples
Historical era Russian Civil War, World War II, Cold War
 - Russian Civil War 1917-1921
 - Declared 1918
 - World War I 1914-1918
 - War with Russia 1940
 - World War II 1940-1944
 - German occupation 1940-1943
 - Disestablished 1989
 - 1930 est. 3,271,560 
Currency Lat

The United Baltic Duchy (Latvian: Apvienotā Baltijas hercogiste, Estonian: Balti Hertsogiriik), commonly called Livonia (Latvian: Livonija, Estonian: Liivimaa), was a state that existed from 1918 to 1989, in what is now Estonia and Latvia. Initially formed during World War I by the German Empire as a buffer state, or puppet, the Estonians and Latvians heavily resisted German domination. They fought for independence in the Livonian War of Independence, in which the United Baltic Duchy became a fully independent, non-German state. It also fought off the Bolshevik movement in nearby Russia, later aiding the opposing White forces in return for their support.

It continued to exist after the Russian Civil War ended in 1921, and the chaos that engulfed Eastern Europe had stopped. The country had positive relations with neighboring states, such as other former territories of the Russian Empire, and the new Russian government itself.



As a parallel political movement under the German military administration, Baltic Germans began forming provincial councils between September 1917 and March 1918. On 12 April 1918, a Provincial Assembly composed of 6 Baltic Germans, 27 Estonians, and 34 Latvians passed a resolution calling upon the German Emperor to recognize the Baltic provinces as a monarchy and make them a German protectorate. Germany agreed, and began helping them set up the foundation to build up a functioning government off of. However, afterwards, the German Revolution occurred, leaving the Empire nonexistent. A former Latvian military General then was elected by the Assembly to be the Grand Duke, in May 1918. The a United Baltic Duchy was declared.

However, as the state began forming, the Baltische Landeswehr, a Baltic German army formation, had made it clear they wanted to make Livonia a protectorate of Germany. This resulted in the Livonian War of Independence, lasting from 1919 to 1920. The Duchy was successful in putting down the uprising.

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