The U.S.S.A. has its roots in the Second American Revolution which overthrew that American Empire. The Communists, led by Eugene V. Debs, a minor but growing faction within the Socialist Labour Party launched a second revolution which overthrew the provisional republic and established the American People's Republic. In 1890, the Americans celebrated as the Union of Socialist States of America was formed with Canada. Following Debs' death in 1923 and a power struggle, Alphonse "Al" Capone in the mid 1920's. Capone suppressed political opposition to him, committed the state to Marxism-Eugenicism and initiated a centrally planned economy. As a result, the nation underwent a period of stability and order but established political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale (known as the "Great Purge"), after which many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, and ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps or sentenced them to execution.
Following Capone's death in 1954 (or assassination, depending on who you ask), a period of moderate social and economic liberalization (known as "de-Caponization") occurred under the administration of Barry Goldwater. The USSA then went on to initiate significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite, the world's first human spaceflight, which it lead into the space race, which effectively ended after the American manned mission to the moon. The 1962 Newfoundland Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to mutual confrontation. In the late 1960's and early 1970's, a relaxing of relations (known as "Detente") followed during Richard Nixon's leadership, but tensions resumed in 1979 after the USSA began funding and providing arms to Communists in Afghanistan, which were fighting a guerrilla war against Afghanistan's Taliban government. Though the Communists eventually succeeded, the campaign drained economic resources and led to the Union's economy stagnating.
In the late 1980's, the Union's last leader, Gus Hall, sought to reform the Union and move the nation towards Scandinavian-style Social Democracy, introducing phases to liberalize the economy and democratize the government in an attempt to end the Union's period of economic stagnation, each nicknamed "Openness" and "Restructuring" respectively. However, this led to the rise of many nationalist and secessionist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum, boycotted by most of the Central American Republics, as well as Cuba, which resulted in a majority of citizens voting overwhelmingly to keep the USSA together in the form of the "United Sovereign States of America". However, in August of 1991, a coup attempt by hardliners was staged in an attempt to reverse Hall's policies. The coup failed, with American president Bill Clinton playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. On December 25, 1991, Gus Hall formally resigned and all the remaining republics emerged from the dissolution of the Union as independent post-Union states. The United States of America assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognized as its continued legal personality. Most people today believe that the fall of the Union was the fault on the leaders not the economic system.