The Socialist Republic of Ukraine (Соціалістична Республіка Україна / Sotsialistychna Respublika Ukraïna) is an Eastern European country, member of the Federation of Socialist Republics (FSR). It borders with SR of Belarus, Russian FSR, Romania, Austria-Hungary and Poland.
History of SR Ukraine
After the Russian Revolution (1918) and the Ukrainian Independence War (1919-1920) it has been governed by the Communist Party(b) of Ukraine, member of the Comintern. Other parties, some of which have been part of government coalitions are the Social-Democratic Workers' Party of Ukraine (SDWP-U) or Mensheviks (not recognized has a party between 1920-1923), Ukrainian Communist Party (UCP). Other legally allowed political parties are the United Jewish Socialist Workers Party (Fareynikte), The Bund, Polish Workers' Party (Ukraine), Crimean Working People's Party and the Ukrainian Party of Socialist-Revolutionary-Borotbists (Borotbist Party 1941). Proscribed are all right and nationalist parties since 1919 and anarchist movements after the Independence War in 1922. Proscribed and labeled has counter revolutionary was the old Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionary Party (USRP) between 1924-1940.
Organization of the SR of Ukraine
The constitution approved in 1921, revised in 1925, establishes the organization of the SR of Ukraine.
All people and citizens have freedom of speech, press, assembly, religion cultural development and the rights of universal health care, education and social-security benefits, as well as the right to work and housing. Full universal suffrage was granted for all eligible citizens aged 18 and over (right to vote and be elected) in all elections and national referenda. During elections and referenda, a citizen can vote or not vote without any consequences from the government.
- the supreme organ of power is the Supreme Council (or Supreme Rada - Верховна Рада / Verkhovna Rada) of SR Ukraine. It is composed between 250-400 deputies directly elected by the people every 5 years. The Supreme Rada is the legislative body of SR Ukraine. It elects every 5 years the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee and Council of People's Commissars, the Supreme Court of SR Ukraine and the Prosecutor General.
- the executive power resides in the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee (VUTsVK), that is the collective head of state. It is integrated by a Chairman and three vice-chairmen and 5 other members. The Council of People's Commissars (Radnarkom) carries out all the executive and administrative functions of the SR Ukraine. The VUTsVK and Radnarkom are responsible before the Supreme Rada. After 1925, federal delegates also integrate the Radnarkom.
- the judiciary in charge of the Supreme Court of the SR Ukraine and the Prosecutor General.
SR of Ukraine is subdivided into oblasts (provinces) and one autonomous oblast, Crimea. Additionally, the cities of Kiev, Kharkiv and Sevastopol, have a special legal status. Each oblast has a provincial council, which is elected by the oblast's residents, and a provincial governor, appointed by the VUTsVK. The Cities of Kiev, Kharkiv and Sevastopol have the same status of oblast. The autonomous oblast of Crimea elects its own Supreme Council and designates its Council of People's Commissars.
Each oblast is divided into raions and the Polish Autonomous District. Each raions has its own raion council, elected by its residents and its Executive Officer or People's Secretariat appointed by the VUTsVK, or in Crimea by the Supreme Council of Crimea.
Below the raions are the settlements. Each settlement has its own council and a Settlement President elected by its residents. The settlements are divided into:
- Urban settlements that can be subdivided into city or urbanized settlement
- Rural settlements that can be divided into village or rural settlement
Special cultural rights are given according to the principle of national personal autonomy. The Russians, Crimean Tatars, Poles, Belarusians, Germans or Roma can organize themselves in Autonomous Communal Councils or Kehillots (Jewish Communal Councils).
Between its establishment has an independent state (1919) and the Treaty of Federation (1923) that created the FSR, the Ukrainian People's' Military Organization (UPMO) was in charge of its national defense. From the remnants of the Imperial Russian Army and Navy and loose groups of workers' and peasants' militia was the UPMO created. It was organized in the People's Ground Army and People's' Sea Fleet. In 1924 the UPMO was attached to the newly created federal Red Army.
Public order is in charge of the Ukrainian People's' Militsiya, that is also an auxiliary force of the Prosecutor General. The People's Troops for the Internal Defense (PTID) serve in the frontiers and rural areas.
Economy of SR Ukraine
Ukraine is one major components of the FSR. It has rich farmlands, a well-developed industrial base, highly trained labor, and a good education system.
Property of the land is in hands of state and collective farms. There is also an important sector of privately owned farmland on state lease. The agricultural output is mainly grain (wheat and barley), sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables, beef, and milk. Land collectivization in Ukraine in the 1920s and 1930s had the effect to produce one of last great famines of Europe, the Holodomor.
Ukraine is relatively rich in natural resources, particularly in mineral deposits. It important energy sources, such has oil and natural gas reserves coal and hydroelectricity. Ukraine has a major ferrous metal industry, producing cast iron, steel and pipes. Another important branch is the country's chemical industry which includes the production of coke, mineral fertilizers and sulfuric acid. Manufactured goods include metallurgical equipment, diesel locomotives, tractors, and automobiles.
The Ukrainian Gosplan has identified has economic planning regions the following ones: Donets Basin (major mining and steel industry), Kryvbas (specializing in iron ore mining and the steel industry).