Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, Ukrayina), officially known as the Ukrainian State (Українська Держава, Ukrayinska Derzhava), is a sovereign state located in Eastern Europe. Ukraine is bordered by the Russian Federation in the east, Romania in the south, and Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland in the west.
The modern day nation came into being following the collapse of the Soviet Union in late 1991. Beginning in the mid '90s, a civil war broke out between the government and Pro-Russian forces in the east. After years of conflict, the war ends with half of Ukraine's original territory being ceded to Russia (resulting in the country becoming landlocked).
Since then, Ukraine as begun a process of de-Russification and re-establishing a fully Ukrainian nation state (this included the relocation of the capital from Kyiv to Rivne in the 2004). As part of its pivot away from Russia, Ukraine has since become a member state of the European Union and NATO.
The Ukrainian State is a unitary parliamentary republic. The head of state is known as the Hetman (Гетьман). Despite the historic connotations of this term, the contemporary office is effectively a presidency. Hetmans are elected by the sitting members of the Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's national legislature). The Prime Minister is the head of government and hold most powers.
Ukraine is economically and politically close with Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia (fellow members of the EU and NATO). Though awkwardness still exist, relations with the Russian Federation have begun to improve. Outside of Europe, Ukraine has very friendly relations with Alaska (due in great part to the Ukrainian diaspora comprising a large portion of the population).