War for Independence - The American Revolutionary War
After the Seven Years War the British, even though victorious, had to press heavy taxes on the American colonists which angered them and eventually led to the succession of the 13 colonies and the American Revolution, fought between the American Rebels, Prussians, French, Spanish, the Dutch against The British and German mercenaries. The War lasted from 1775-1783 with Americans rising as victors.
During the war, campaigns were pursed in Canada, though most failed, success was found at the Battle of Montreal, resulting in south Quebec becoming part of US territory.
The Treaty of Paris enforced 11 articles.
- Acknowledging the United States to be a free, sovereign and independent nation, and that the British Crown and all heirs and successors relinquish claims to the Government, property and territorial rights of the same, and every part thereof;
- Establishing the boundaries between the United States and British North America;
- The Territory of south Quebec would be given to the US
- Granting fishing rights to United States fishermen in the Grand Banks, off the coast of Newfoundland and in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence;
- Recognizing the lawful contracted debts to be paid to creditors on either side;
- The Congress of the Confederation will "earnestly recommend" to state legislatures to recognize the rightful owners of all confiscated lands "provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which have been confiscated belonging to real British subjects [Loyalists]";
- United States will prevent future confiscations of the property of Loyalists;
- Prisoners of War on both sides are to be released and all property left by the British army in the United States unmolested (including slaves);
- Great Britain and the United States were each to be given perpetual access to the Mississippi River;
- Territories captured by Americans subsequent to treaty will be returned without compensation;
- Ratification of the treaty was to occur within six months from the signing by the contracting parties.
After the War, the Articles of Confederation was established but evetually a new constitution was adopted, the one that has been used for over 200 years and continued to be used.
The US constitution
The US constitution, adopted on September 17, 1787, is the supreme law of the United States.
The first three articles establish the rules and separate articles of the three branches of government including the legislative, executive and the judiciary
The Bill of Rights includes the first ten amendments to the constitution.
Changes in this constitution
- Slaves are granted citizenship rights
The War of 1812 and Canadian-American nationalism
The War of 1812 was a war between the US and the British empire that took place from 1812-1815.
Before the war there was pressure from Great Britain due to the Napoleonic Wars when Great Britain captured American sailors to fight for the British. The war was called for and supported by Democratic Republicans, and the Federalist called for no war. However eventually the War came and the British, while fighting France, declared war on the US and the War of 1812 had begun
The Rise of Canadian-American nationalism arose impart by many of the settlers in Canada against the Napoleonic Wars due to many seeing it as a repeating cycle of European fights. When the War of 1812 broke out, a Canadian party lobbied for Independence from the British Empire and annexation to the United States, eventually they formed a small militia called "The Canadian Liberation Army", although their numbers were small, they were heavily supported by the US.
The Invasion of Canada:
March 23, 1813- the British had successfully captured the City of Montreal in the South Quebec territory
May 2, 1813- Commander Michael Phisher send forces to take back Montreal.
May 3, 1813- Montreal is taken back from British hands.
October 5, 1813- US/CLA forces successfully defend Moravian Town, Tecumseh is killed.
February 3, 1814- US, under command of Michael Phisher, invades Newfoundland and captures the west half of the island and on Feb 4, takes all of Newfoundland.
After a few more American victories in North Canada, the US secured Canada from
Battle for DC: In August the British attempted an invasion of the capitol but in less numbers then in the otl and Commander Michael Phisher defends the capital.
George Cockburn is killed in the battle.
Battle for New Orleans: Major General Andrew Jackson successfully defends New Orleans, resulting in total victory for the US
The treaty of Paris is signed on Dec 25, 1815 which resulted in the Annexation of Canada, and a much weaker British empire (though they would recover)