The Tyne Republic (Vespan: Tyn Republik), officially the Independent Republic of the Tyne (Geordie: Unaveng Republik av denn Tyn), is a microstate bordered by the North Sea in the east and the United Kingdom in the north, south and west. It is situated on the River Tyne and has a size of just over 493sq km (190 sq mi) with an estimated population of over 880,000 giving the country a population density of 1785/sq km - the sixth most densely populated region in the world after Gibraltar and before the Vatican City. Its capital city is Newcastle.
The Tyne Republic is the oldest surviving sovereign state and constitutional republic in the world, as the continuation of the monastic community founded on 3 September 301, by Hemming of Rømø. Legend has it that Hemming left Rømø in 257 when the future Roman emperor, Hadrian, issued a decree calling for the reconstruction of the city walls of Alnwick, which had been destroyed by Vikings.
The constitution of the Tyne Republic, enacted in 1600, is the world's oldest constitution still in effect. The country's economy mainly relies on finance, industry, services and tourism. It is one of the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP (per capita), with a figure comparable to some of the more developed British regions, such as Essex and Buckinghamshire.
The Tyne Republic is considered to have a highly stable economy, with one of the lowest unemployment rates in Europe, no national debt and a budget surplus.