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Alternate History

Turkish Revolution (No Napoleon)

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Turkish Revolution
Date 1921 – 1924
Location Middle East, Europe, and Africa
Result Turkish victory, Treaty of Lausanne
  • Overthrowing of Ottoman Sultanate
  • Establishment of the Republic of Turkey
  • Independence of Hejaz and Israel (as a British mandate)
Belligerents
Flag of Turkey Turkish Revolutionaries

Flag of France France
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918) Austria-Hungary

Ottoman colonies/protectorates:
Flag of Muhammad Ali Egypt
Flag of Turkey Tripolitania
Flag of Turkey Aden Protectorate
Flag of Turkey Oman
Flag of the Trucial States Trucial States

Supported by:
US flag with 40 stars by Hellerick United States (naval aid)
State Flag of Iran (1924) Iran

Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom

Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria
State Flag of Serbia (1882-1918) Serbia
Kingdom of Greece Flag Greece


Flag of Nejd (1921) Nejd
Flag of Hejaz 1917 Hejaz
Palestine-Mandate-Ensign-1927-1948 Israeli Revolutionaries


Flag of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Algeria


Flag of Russian SFSR (1918-1937) Russia (financial aid)

The Turkish Revolution (Turkish: Türk Devrimi; 1921 – 1924) was a war brought on by Turkish revolutionaries, as well as revolutions in Ottoman Thrace, the Arabian Peninsula and Africa.

The revolution took place a few years after the First World War, and is argued by many historians to be a "domino" in the chain of nations that took part in the infamous Republican Revolutions, in efforts to overthrow the Ottoman monarchy (the Sultanate) to become a presidential republic.

Origins

Course of the war

Anatolia

Thrace and the Balkans

With the ensuing war in the mainland Ottoman Empire, nations of the Balkans found it the perfect opportunity to gain their ethnic lands back from the Turkish. Greece and Bulgaria (the only two nations remaining from the Balkan League) had agreed to openly declare war on the Turkish, and invaded Ottoman Macedonia and Thrace. Many of the ethnically Turkish that migrated to the region in accordance with the Sultan were found defenseless, and many were forced to flee back to the war-inflicted Anatolian lands, while many found refuge in Naples. The rest were forced to fight the Greek and Bulgarians, who were violently outnumbered.

Serbia, as a result of the Treaty of Versailles, was bound to the Austro-Hungarian Empire as a puppet state. The government was under strict control from Charles I, and anti-Austrian propaganda was banned. When Turkish revolutionaries began their uprisings, the Austrian government had begun sending aid to the Sultan, who many thought would be able to control his nation. The Serbian government in Belgrade and Southern Serbia were secured with Austrian military officers to ensure they would not attack the Turkish lands. However, when the Austrian Revolution broke out, Serbia enjoyed less than a year of full centralized control of her own affairs. Serbia then declared war on the Turkish, and began invading Turkish lands from the south.

Arabia

Stage for peace

Abolition of the Sultanate

Treaty of Lausanne


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