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Turkey | Republic of Turkey | Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish)

Capital: Deraliye

Largest city: Deraliye (14,160,467)

Official language: Turkish

Other languages: Avar, Chechen, Circassian, Kazakh, Kurdish, Kyrgyz, Persian, Uzbek

Ethnic groups: 48.2% Turk, 17.5% Uzbek, 9.6% Kazakh, 8.8% Persian, 3.7% Kyrgyz, 2.8% Circassian, 1.5% Chechen, 1.4% Azerbaijani, 1.2% Kurd, 5.3% others

Religions: Alevism (74.1%), Mazdaism (9.5%), Yazidism (1.0%), Others (2.1%), Non-religious (13.3%)

Demonym: Turkish

Government: Constitutional republic | Unitary parliamentary

President: Ragıp Erdoğan

Prime Minister: Akagündüz Davutoğlu

Legislature: Grand National Assembly

Republic declared: October 29, 1923

Area: 4,341,611 sq km

Population (2014): 105,492,323

Currency: Turkish lira (TRY)

Internet TLD: .tr

History of Turkey

Prehistory

Antiquity

Tauri and Scythians

Bosporan Kingdom (438 BC – 370 AD)

High Middle Ages

Hun rule (370–470)

Roman rule (470–581)

Turkic Khaganate (552–744)

Khazar Khaganate (618–1048)

Great Bulgar Khanate (632–668)

Kangar Union (659–750)

Turgesh Khaganate (699–766)

Kimek Khanate (743–1035)

Oguz Khaganate (750–1055)

Karluk Khaganate (756–940)

Roman rule (833–1204)

Karakhanian Khanate (840–1212)

Pecheneg Khanates (860–1091)

Cuman-Kipchak Confederation (900–1220)

Khitan Empire (1124–1218)

Great Seljuk Empire (1037–1194)

Khwarazmian Empire (1077–1231)

Late Middle Ages

Mongol rule (1218–1259)

Golden Horde (1240s–1446)

Timurian Empire (1363–1507)

Khanate of Crimea (1399–1453)

Khanate of Sibir (1419–1498)

Khanate of Kazan (1438–1552)

Kazakh Khanate (1446–1487)

Modern period

Turkish Empire (1453-1920)

First Republic (1920-1945)

Communist Turkey (1945-1991)

Second Republic (since 1991)

Demographics

Largest cities

Başkent 11,470,334
Kuban 2,744,995
Almaty 2,460,422
Taşkent 2,309,603
Akyar 1,418,987
Aşkabat 1,031,992
Taman 1,027,929
Astrahan 1,013,800
Akmoly 860,368
Samarkand 848,523
Eskişehir 844,842
Duşanbe 778,551
Bişkek 750,327
Şımkent 683,273
Mahaçkale 572,076
Nemengan 456,432
Şetkale 425,853
Taraz 406,262
Soçi 389,434
Aktöbe 379,546
Akmabet 332,317
Buhara 328,644
Öskemen 322,151
Andican 318,419
Sıvaş 312,587
Kafdağı 311,693
Alaşkale 299,264
Yalta 276,746
Korkunç 271,573
Nalçik 240,203
Çarcev 234,817
Nukus 230,006
Adıyaman 217,463
Daşoğuz 216,506
208,521
Karşı 204,697
Gölcük 188,832
Hokand 187,477
Uşak 180,983
Hucend 172,559
Çirçik 167,842
Fergana 164,322
Maykop 144,249
Beşdağ 142,511
Hasavyurt 131,187
Çerkeskale 129,069
Kırşehir 128,553
Derbent 119,271
Çeşane 118,365
Marı 114,682
Elista 107,349
Nazran 103,935
Acısu 100,996
Hazarşehir 100,129

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