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Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), known officially as the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in western Asia and Thrace in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe.
Turkey's location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia makes it a country of significant geostrategic importance.
Turkey is bordered by five countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Federation of Socialist Republics to the northeast; and Iran to the east; and Confederation of Arab States to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north. The Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish Straits) demarcate the boundary between Eastern Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia.
A cadre of young military officers, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, organized a successful resistance to the Allies and would establish the modern and secular Republic of Turkey with Atatürk as its first president.
One of its firsts acts was the newly established of the Turkish republic was to denounce the Treaty of Lucerne and regain the territories in Anatolia.
According to the national constitution, Turkey is as follows:
- The executive power is in charge of a President of the Republic, Head of State, elected by the Grand National Assembly for a four year term and eligible for reelection. He is also Commander in Chief of the Turkish Armed Forces. He promulgates all laws and has suspensive veto. The government is in charge of President of the Council of Ministers and its Council. They are appointed by the Grand National Assembly on suggestion of the President.
- Grand National Assembly, is the supreme legislative and constituent power of the Republic. It is directly elected every four years.
- Judiciary is in charge of a Supreme Court of Cassation, a Supreme Administrative Court and a General Prosecutor of the Republic.
Suffrage is given to all citizens over 18 years old, men and women, and can read and write in Turkish. Non citizens are all the descent of the former Sultan household, who are also noneligible to any elected or governmental position.
The Republican People's Party (Turkish: Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi, CHP) is the major political organization. Formed during the Turkish Civil War, from the national groups, resistance organizations and the People's Party. The CHP also promoted, organized and financed the Turkish People's Parties of Cilicia, Lycia and Ionia.
Besides the Kemalist CHP, two other parties that are legal as long as they subscribe to the Manifesto of the Turkish National Movement (1920) and the Constitution.
The Communist Party of Turkey (Türkiye Komünist Partisi, TKP), founded in 1920 and banned between 1920-1923. The legalization came as an agreement for the help provided by Russia and Transcaucasia. The TKP was founded by left-wing sectors of the national liberation movement and a group of Turkish communists in Bolshevik Russia. The former militants of the People's Revolutionary Party of Kurdistan (PRPK) by order of the Comintern adhered to the TKP becoming its Kurdish Section.
The Free Republican Party (Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkası, SCF) that empathizes secularism and nationalism and encourages the use of foreign capital entering as opposed to the continuous state intervention in economic life.
Turkish Armed Forces and Law Enforcement
Since the creation of the Republic, the Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) (Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri or TSK) have being an important political actor in the Turkish society. The TAF has one of the largest standing forces in the Middle East. Compulsory military service applies to all male citizens from twenty to forty one years of age.
Since the founding of the republic the military has perceived itself as the guardian of Atatürkçülük, the official state ideology. Compulsory military service applies to all male citizens from twenty to forty one years of age.
The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) is organized in:
- Turkish Land Forces (Türk Kara Kuvvetleri)
- Turkish Naval Forces (Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri)
- Turkish Air Force (Türk Hava Kuvvetleri)
- Turkish Coast Guard (Sahil Güvenlik Komutanlığı), is responsible for maintaining law and order in the Turkish territorial waters. It is responsible to the Ministry of Interior in times of peace.
- Gendarmerie General Command (Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı), is responsible for maintaining law and order in rural areas which do not fall under the jurisdiction of TNP. It is responsible to the Ministry of Interior in times of peace.
The Turkish National Police (Emniyet Genel Müdürlüğü) is the civilian police force responsible for law enforcement. It is responsible to the Ministry of Interior.
- Turkish Republic of Pontus, de jure state of the Turkish nationalist movement.