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The Federal Empire of Turkey (also known as the Ottoman Empire) is a large Asian and European country. Its capital lies at Istanbul on the Bosporus Straits, and it covers most of the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, numerous Mediterranean islands, as well as most of Asia Minor and large parts of the Caucasus mountains and other Near Eastern territories. Its population as of 2009 is approximately 135 million and it is currently the fourth largest economy in the world. Turkey's government is a semi-constitutional monarchy - the current Sultan is Abdulmecid III, son of Osman V, who took the throne in 2002 following his father's death, but it is the Congress of Turkey which wields day-to-day administrative powers, headed by an elected Prime Minister and a Sultan-appointed Vizier. Turkey's primary religion is the Euro-Turkish sub-sect of Sunni Islam, but a percentage as high as 30% of inhabitants, particularly in Greece, Macedonia and Romania, are Eastern Orthodox Christians. The official state language is Turkish, although again Greek and Romanian are common in parts of the Balkans.
History of Turkey
Napoleonic Alliance, Reform and Serbian Wars
First Franco-Turkish War and Interbellum Era
Second Franco-Turkish War and Rapid Modernization
Rivalry with Persia and Role as Mideast Power
The Federal Empire and Black Sea War
Cold War and Modern Era
Religious Compromises and Tensions
The Turkish People's Army is the backbone of the Turkish military, which has the highest expenditures of any of the second-tier major powers (China, Japan, Colombia, Persia). The TPA reduced its total active manpower to 1,650,000 in 2004, with another 4.5 million in reserve, making it the fifth-largest army in the world (behind France, China, the United States and Japan). Unlike most militaries, Turkey's armored divisions operate independently of standard infantry - the Turkish Armored Cavalry boasts a whopping 1000 tanks and 2,500 armored infantry vehicles, and upwards 100,000 support personnel and operators.
The Turkish Royal Navy includes three aircraft carries and twelve destroyers, along with twenty-two battleships and twenty-six cruisers, due to naval restrictions placed on Turkey following the Black Sea War. Most of the Turkish Navy is stationed in the Black Sea - the Turkish Home Guard operates most of the ships in the Mediterranean, especially in the Aegean archipelagos.
The Turkish Royal Air Force boasts a fleet of 1000 fighter jets and 650 heavy long-range bombers, and 575 short-range bombers, as well as about 400 personnel carriers. The TRAF is regarded as the most modern air force in the world due to its quality of equipment, vehicles and the superior training of its pilots and support staff.