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Tunisia (Arabic: تونس Tūnis; Berber: ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ), officially the Tunisian Republic or the Republic of Tunisia (Arabic: الجمهورية التونسية al-Jumhūrīya at-Tūnisīya; Berber: ⵜⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ), was a democratic nation located northernmost in Africa. Its northernmost point, Ras ben Sakka, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its name was derived from its capital city, Tunis, which was located on the country's northeast coast.
Tunisia achieved independence from France in 1956 led by Habib Bourguiba, who later became the first Tunisian President. The secular Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD), formerly Neo Destour, controlled the country as one of the most repressive regimes in the Arab World from its independence in 1956 until the Tunisian revolution in 2011. In November 1987, doctors declared Bourguiba unfit to rule and, in a bloodless coup d'état, Prime Minister Zine El Abidine Ben Ali assumed the presidency. President Ben Ali, previously Habib Bourguiba's minister and a military figure, held office from 1987 to 2011. The anniversary of Ben Ali's succession, 7 November, was celebrated as a national holiday. He was consistently re-elected with enormous majorities every election, the last being 25 October 2009, until he fled the country amid popular unrest in January 2011.
In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution was precipitated by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption, a lack of freedom of speech and other political freedoms and poor living conditions. Inspired by the Arab Spring, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.