Tunisian Republic
الجمهورية التونسية
al-Jumhūrīyah at-Tūnisīyah
Flag of France 1956-2011 Flag of Morocco
Flag of Tunisia Coat of arms of Tunisia
Flag Emblem

حرية، كرامة، عدالة، نظام
"Ḥurrīyah, Karāmah, 'Adālah, Niẓām"
"Liberty, Dignity, Justice, Order"


حماة الحمى
Humat al-Hima
Defenders of the Homeland

and largest city
Official languages Arabic
Spoken languages Tunisian Arabic
French (commercial and educational)
Berber (mainly in the south)
Religion Islam
Demonym Tunisian
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
- 1957-1987 Habib Bourguiba (First)
- 2014-2015 Beji Caid Essebsi (Last)
Prime Minister
- 1922-1926 Mustapha Dinguizli (First)
- 2015 Habib Essid (Last)
Legislature Assembly of the Representatives of the People
Currency Tunisian dinar (TND)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
- Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+1)
Drives on the right
ISO 3166 code TN
Internet TLD .tn

Tunisia (Arabic: تونس‎ Tūnis; Berber: ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ), officially the Tunisian Republic or the Republic of Tunisia (Arabic: الجمهورية التونسية‎ al-Jumhūrīya at-Tūnisīya; Berber: ⵜⴰⴳⴷⵓⴷⴰ ⵏ ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ), was a democratic nation located northernmost in Africa. Its northernmost point, Ras ben Sakka, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its name was derived from its capital city, Tunis, which was located on the country's northeast coast.

Tunisia achieved independence from France in 1956 led by Habib Bourguiba, who later became the first Tunisian President. The secular Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD), formerly Neo Destour, controlled the country as one of the most repressive regimes in the Arab World from its independence in 1956 until the Tunisian revolution in 2011. In November 1987, doctors declared Bourguiba unfit to rule and, in a bloodless coup d'état, Prime Minister Zine El Abidine Ben Ali assumed the presidency. President Ben Ali, previously Habib Bourguiba's minister and a military figure, held office from 1987 to 2011. The anniversary of Ben Ali's succession, 7 November, was celebrated as a national holiday. He was consistently re-elected with enormous majorities every election, the last being 25 October 2009, until he fled the country amid popular unrest in January 2011.

In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution was precipitated by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption, a lack of freedom of speech and other political freedoms and poor living conditions. Inspired by the Arab Spring, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. Shortly afterwards, a series of cyderhacks by the Tunisian government had caused most of Moroccan websites broken and at least 100 attacks on Moroccan cities have reported. Morocco decreed by taking over entire Tunisia in a week and abolished this historical region. At the end of 2011, 80% of Tunisian Arab people were sent to concentration camps for human farming, while the rest have flee to other countries or stay in homeland for underground resistance against Berbers.

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