Alternate History

Tripartite Agreement of Friendship, Commerce and Consular Relations (Twilight of a New Era)

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Tripartite Agreement of Friendship, Commerce and Consular Relations



Location of signing

Zhanjiang (South Chinese Republic)




Ratification by all three parties


South Chinese Republic, State of Yunnan and United Provinces of China


South Chinese Republic and to the League of Nations as a diplomatic notification


Mandarin Chinese (官話)

The Tripartite Agreement of Friendship, Commerce and Consular Relations was signed by South Chinese Republic, State of Yunnan and United Provinces of China in 1921.

Tripartite Agreement came in to being as a means to establish diplomatic relations, or least unofficial recognition, by the United Kingdom, France, Empire of Japan, United States and Netherlands. These five nations were the main trade partners and had territories with common borders with the three warlord states . It also marked formal independence from the First Chinese Republic of the already de facto self-government of the local military cliques. The Tripartite Agreement also tried to establish a common trade area or at least promote a regional economic block and attract foreign investments and trade.

By the Tripartite Agreement each of the signatories acknowledge mutual diplomatic recognition as sovereign states. Although not a defense treaty, each state agreed on mutual nonaggression. Latter an additional protocol provided a mutual agreement on not allowing Pan-Chinese activities within the borders of the three warlord states.

The three states establish full diplomatic and opened embassies, consulates and commercial offices. They also establish commercial exchange, favorable commercial treatment and import quotas between the three States, duty free zones and joint trade consultation commissions. It also guarantees free river navigation for all three states and the possibility of joint land, water and air customs offices.

Any disagreement or interpretation of the Agreement was to be recursed to a Tripartite Arbitration Panel.

There were also clauses of establishing a future common currency. Meanwhile all exchange could be done in Chinese Silver Dollar, South cash (Nán wén, 南文) - or Southern Yuan (南元).

For all the foreign concessions and territories in Southern China (Hong-Kong, Kwang-Chou-Wan, Macau, Hankou, Shamian Island and others), their rights, previous treaties and extraterritoriality were recognized as valid.

The Tripartite Agreement had duration of 10 years, automatically renewable. The Tripartite Agreement ended when the three states were reunited with the Second Chinese Republic after the South Campaign for National Unity.

See also

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