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The Treaty of Utrecht was a treaty signed in the Dutch city of Utrecht in 1713, ending the War of the Spanish Succession.
The main provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht are as follows:
- Phillip V will be recognized as the Rightful Monarch of the Holy Christian Kingdom of Spain.
- Phillip V will now and forever relinquish any and all claims to the Throne of the Holy Christian Kingdom of France.
- The Spanish Possessions gained in war that extend beyond the Rightful Border of the Holy Christian Kingdom of Spain will be relinquished to the Rightful Rulers of the lands, as decided by the Balance of Powers.
- The French Possessions gained in war that extend beyond the Rightful Border of the Holy Christian Kingdom of France will be relinquished to the Rightful Rulers of the lands, as decided by the Balance of Powers.
- The most Holy Kingdom of France will relinquish all claims on the territory in the New World known as Rupert's Land, which henceforth will be known as the Rightful Territory of the Holy Christian Kingdom of Britain and Ireland.
These terms shifted a number of dynamics on the European continent, but most saliently they expressed the defeat and rejection of Spanish and French imperial ambitions by the surrounding powers. They clearly demonstrate the gaining force of the concept of Balance of Powers, which held sway over much of the ruling class of Europe from 1702 to 1747. Tensions simmered over the terms of this treaty, however, as what was not included in it is arguably more important than the actual provisions. It was the consensus of the framers of the treaty that, in order to properly stimulate the Balance of Powers, France should cede it's North American possessions of Newfoundland and Acadia to Britain.
The French Crown, however, was absolutely opposed to the idea, and refused to cede those territories to Britain, despite many threats and deals offered during the negotiations. This outright refusal to accept what many considered to be the most prudent thing was taken as a direct and major snub directed at Britain, a slight which did not go unnoticed. Rather than easing tensions between France and Britain, the Treaty of Utrecht ended up greatly exacerbating them. It was this bad blood between the nations that led to the Norman War in 1716. It is commonly held that if France had swallowed it's pride and ceded Newfoundland and Acadia in the Treaty of Utrecht, the Norman War would have never occurred.