The Treaty of St. Louis was a treaty signed between the USA and CSA on January 11, 1865. Its terms included:

  • Recognition of the CSA by the USA.
  • Putting the border states under joint military control until the holding of a referendum.
  • Free access to both the Mississippi River, the Great Lakes, and the Pacific for both sides.
  • Abolition of slavery in the Confederacy by the end of 1865. This point had already been negotiated by the British with the Confederacy.
  • Free trade and free crossing between the CSA and USA.
  • A pledge of mutual military assistance in war.

Critical reaction for the treaty on both sides was positive, even though some in the North felt Lincoln had given too much in the border states. The treaty was also hailed in Europe, especially the anti-slavery clauses.

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