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Treaty of Sevres Implemented

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This althist will deal with what could have happened if the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_S%C3%A8vres has been implemented. The major POD is the end of World War 1.

Timeline

Aftermath of World War 1 and Interwar period

The former areas of the Ottoman empire had a difficult time in this period, with Greece trying to consolidate its control over Thrace and Smyrna region, having to accommodate refugees from Anatolia. Also, a large number of Russians settles in Thrace (some 300,000), fleeing Bolshevik terror in Crimea. The White movement supporters are very loyal to Greek government.

Turkey has been humiliated and is now a military dictatorship. The Kemalist regime tries to modernise the country and has very bad relations with its neighbours. Many of the former Ottoman military commanders have been handed out to Greece and mainly Armenia who were to trial them (this caused also anger in Turkey). The economy is collapsing, and about one half of the country is occupied by Italy and France.

Syria and Cilicia were given to French administration. The French divided Syria along ethnic and religious lines into a mosaic of states: Lebanon for Maronite Christians, Alawite state on the Dyrian coast based in Latakia, State of Antioch, State of Cilicia, Orontes State (area for Syrian Christians), Rojave Courdestan Druze State in Hawran and the rest became split into two states (Aleppo and Damascus). This mosaic was to be made into a federation, collectively known as French Syria.

The French pursued a policy of divide and rule: they have managed to revive the Aramaic language in the Orontes put everyone against everyone.

Mesopotamia was given to the British, who divided area into four "regions": Iraq in the south, Jazira in the west centered around Tikrit and Faluja, Kurdestan in Erbil and finally Assyria made from the northern part as well as incorporating Hakkari. It was mostly this Hakkari region where the refugees resettled, as well as many Assyrians from Urmia and Turabdin were invited to the Niniveh plains. Assyrian was administered separately from the rest of the area. In 1932 Iraq and Mesopotamia were proclaimed independent states

Armenia had to deal with a large amount of people as well. the coastal areas around Trebizond had to deal with Pontic Greeks arriving from Sinope also from Crimea. Also a group of Anti-Bolshevik Russians were settled around Erzurum. Also, Armenia welcomes refugees from central Anatolia but also tries to deport its Turkish element. There are many tensions with Russia, and save Britain Armenia's major regional allies include Greece and Persia.

Italian anger with the Versailles system was not that HUGE as it was in OTL mainly because Italy got influence in SW Anatolia.(The regions of Caria, Lycia,Phrygia and Pamphylia). Italian relations with Greece at the time were very friendly, since Greece supported Italys claims in southern Anatolia, while Italy supported Greece against Turkey to the north.

Second World War

Turkeys attitude was similar to that of Hungary but the main thing that prevented Turkey from joining the Axis is the Italian zone of influence in SW Anatolia which Mussolini didn't want to give up.

However Italy quickly found a good ally in Bulgaria.In 1940 Mussolini met with Kemal, where they discussed the "Asian question". Both parties reached an agreement, since Duce sacrificed three regions for the Turkish army against Greece. In 1941 the combined forces of Italy, Bulgaria and Turkey launched an attack on Greece. After defeat many Greeks retreat to Crete and Cyprus. Syria was nominally controlled by Vichy regime,and many Syrian Sunni politician s think of independence.

Also in 1941 the Anglo-Iraqi war occurred. Assyria decided not to intervene, until British reached Baghdad. Then they participated in the campaigns around Erbil and Tikrit.

At the time of Operation Barbarossa, Turkey attacked Armenia. Despite heroic resistance,all of Western Armenia save Kars fell to Turks. The orders were that what was not finished in 1915 was to be ended now.However a large fedayi prevented Turkey from controlling the area.In this campaign Armenia was supported by Persia and Assyria.

The Armenian campaign eventually leads to a British offensive against Kurdistan. Also after the USSR finds reserve capacities the Georgian armies march through Erzerum region.

Turkey surrenders in 1944 in Ankara.Armenia and Assyria get their prewar borders, autonomous Kurdistan becomes independent and Constantinople as well as straight zone become part of Greece.

Post-war period

After WW2 Turkey is divided into occupation zones: French, British (In the former Italian zone of influence), Soviet (around Sinope) and Greek and Armenian ones.

Armenia manages to get a position similar to Finland in this timeline, respecting Soviet interests but still having their own internal policy and keeping friendly relations with Greece, Iran and Assyria. Armenia expelled all Turks, and grants autonomy to Pontus.

In Greece it was during the reign of George II (1935-1947) that Greece obtained Constantinople. Also Greece expels most of its Turkish population. A referendum was held in 1946 as to whether the capital should remain Athens or be transferred to Constantinople. The results were very close Thesaloniki was chosen as capital as compromise between the two.

The Syrian republic fails to remain a democratic and federal state and instead becomes a unitary authoritarian regime. The leading factions: Christians, Alawites and Druze made a pact against the Sunni.

Assyria remains a major British ally, having two British bases. The Kurdish demand unification, but the areas remain territorially disconnected, the major issue is that Assyrian cuts them apart. Therefore, Assyria has to fight two wars against their Kurdish neighbours, defeating them in both.

The occupation of Turkey ends in 1949.

A major conflict erupts in Cyprus,where a referendum amongst the Greeks resulted in 96% in favour for enosis. In 1960 the Zurich and London agreements led to setting up a Republic of Cyprus, with two ethnic districts (a Maronite one in the NW and a Turkish one in southern slopes of the Kyrenia range. However in 1974, the EOKA B and military junta organized a coup d´etat in order to unite with Greece. The Maronites were promised a similar status as Mount Athos and agreed. The following referendum resulted in 18% against, rest were in favour.Since 1975 Cyprus is a part of Greece.

In the recent years, the major source of tensions and conflict is Iraq. After toppling Saddam Hussein, it alienated its Sunni area, which in 2007 declared the Republic of Jazira in Tikrit.

The newest country in the region is called Sham and became independent in 2013 during the Syrian civil war.

List of countries

  • Armenia
  • Assyria
  • Cilicia
  • Dagestan
  • Greece
  • Iraq
  • Israel
  • Jazira
  • Kurdistan
  • Lebanon
  • Rojave
  • Sham
  • Syria
  • Turkey
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