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Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine (Twilight of a New Era)

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Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine (or Treaty of Neuilly in short)




Neuilly-sur-Seine, France




Following ratification by Bulgaia and any three of the British Empire, France, Italy and Japan, the treaty would come into force for those "high contracting parties" and thereafter for each additional signatory upon deposit of ratification


Kingdom of Bulgaria and

United Kingdom, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, and Romania


French government


French (primary), English and Italian

The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine (or Treaty of Neuilly in short) was signed between the Kingdom of Bulgaria , one on the Central Powers defeated in World War I , and the Allies in 1920. The Treaty required Bulgaria to cede various territories, implement partial disarmament and pay war reparations.

Territorial clauses

Bulgaria was required:

  • to cede Western Thrace (8,578 km2) to the Allies thereby cutting off Bulgaria's direct outlet to the Aegean Sea. Until a decision to award the territory to Greece or Bulgaria is made it would be administered by the Provisional Administrative Commission of Western Thrace (PACWT) under supervision of the League of Nations (LoN) .
  • the return of Southern Dobruja, which had been captured during the war, to Romania, thus restoring the border set by the Treaty of Bucharest (1913)
  • Bulgaria recognizes the frontiers of Greece.

Military clauses and partial disarmament clauses

  • Universal compulsory military service is abolished in Bulgaria. The Bulgarian Army is to be only constituted and recruited by means of voluntary enlistment.
  • Reduction of Bulgarian land forces (army) to 20,000 men and limitation on size of Army divisions and units
  • The Bulgarian Army shall be exclusively employed for the maintenance of order within the Bulgarian territory and for the control of the frontiers. All measures of mobilization or appertaining to mobilization are forbidden.
  • There must only exist in Bulgaria one military school, strictly set apart for the recruitment of officers for the authorized units.
  • No new fortifications or fortified places shall be constructed in Bulgaria.
  • Stock of munitions at the disposal of the Bulgarian Army shall not exceed the amounts fixed
  • The manufacture of arms, munitions and of war material shall only be carried on in one single factory, which shall be controlled by and belong to the State, and whose output shall be strictly limited to the manufacture of such arms, munitions and war material as is necessary for the military forces and armaments
  • Prohibition of Navy. All Bulgarian warships, submarines included, are declared to be finally surrendered . *
  • Bulgaria will, however, have the right to maintain on the Danube and along her coasts for police and fishery duties not more than four torpedo boats and six motor boats, all without torpedoes and torpedo apparatus. The construction or acquisition of any submarine, even for commercial purposes, shall be forbidden in Bulgaria.
  • Prohibition of Air Force. The armed forces of Bulgaria must not include any military or naval air forces. No dirigible shall be kept.
  • The importation into Bulgaria of arms, munitions and war material of all kinds is forbidden. The manufacture for foreign countries and the exportation of arms, munitions and war material shall also be forbidden.
  • The use of flamethrowers, asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and all similar liquids, materials or processes being prohibited, their manufacture and importation are strictly forbidden in Bulgaria. Material specially intended for the manufacture, storage or use of the said products or processes is equally forbidden.
  • The manufacture and importation of armoured cars, tanks or any similar machines suitable for use in war is forbidden.
  • All military, naval and air clauses shall be executed by Bulgaria under the control of Inter-Allied Commissions appointed by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers.

Reparations and Economic clauses

  • payment of reparations of £100 million (2,250 billion francs gold).

Other clauses

  • Peace treaties signed with Romania are declared void and null.
  • Bulgaria recognizes the Kingdom of Serbia and established a population transfer and exchange between Bulgaria and Serbia
  • Bulgaria recognizes the Kingdom of Greece and its frontiers
  • On the award of Western Thrace, a population transfer and exchange supervised by the LoN will come in effect, three months after the communication of the decision to the parties (Bulgaria and Greece)
  • Protection of minorities in Bulgaria. Bulgaria assures full and complete protection of life and liberty to all inhabitants of Bulgaria without distinction of birth, nationality, language, race or religion. All inhabitants of Bulgaria shall be entitled to the free exercise of religion or belief.
  • Bulgaria will provide in the public educational system in towns and districts in which a considerable proportion of Bulgarian nationals of other than Bulgarian speech are resident adequate facilities for ensuring that in the primary schools the instruction shall be given to the children through the medium of their own language.

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