|Treaty of Lichtenberg|
|Treaty of Peace between the Central Powers and Italy|
| September 10, 1919|
Lichtenberg, Prussia, Germany
| July 16, 1920|
Ratification by Italy and the Central Powers.
|Languages||German, Hungarian, Italian|
The Treaty of Lichtenberg, was signed on September 10, 1919 by the victorious Central Powers of World War I on the one hand and by the Kingdom of Italy on the other. The treaty signing ceremony took place at the Lichtenberg Rathaus.
At the time of the Armistice of Buonconsiglio Castle on August 12, 1918 the fate of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy hung by a thread. On October 16, 1918 Emperor Charles I of Austria officially declared a "reformation of the Austrian administration", one day later the provisional assembly ratified the manifesto. However, on the territory of the Cisleithanian ("Austrian") half of the former Empire, the newly established states had been proclaimed in order to persuade the Italian populations of Austria that there would be repression. Moreover Northern Venetia and Friuli-Venezia Giulia was occupied by Austro-Hungarian troops.
An Austrian Imperial Assembly election was held on February 16, 1919. The Assembly elected Karl Renner state chancellor, replacing Heinrich Lammasch as leader of the Austro-Hungarian delegation, and dealt directly concerning peace terms with Italy. When Chancellor Renner arrived at Lichtenberg in May 1919 he, unlike his Central Power counterparts, welcomed the Italian delegation to the negotiations led by Italy's former Prime Minister Tommaso Tittoni. Upon a German ultimatum, Tittoni signed the treaty on September 10.
According to article 177, the Italian side accepted responsibility for violating international laws of neutrality and breaking its agreement with the Central Powers. That Italy recognized the annexations of occupied territory as well as of Montenegro. The treaty included 'war reparations' of large sums of money, directed towards Austria and Germany, to pay for the costs of the war over a period of 30 years.
Italy had to face socially significant territorial losses:
- The Venetian and Friuli territories occupied by Austria was merged with the County of Tyrol and Free City of Trieste incorporated into the autonomous Kingdom of Venetia. These cessions concerned a large Italian-speaking population.
Article 88 of the treaty required Italy to refrain from directly or indirectly compromising the independence of other nations in Europe, which meant that Italy could no longer continue its ambitions over the Adriatic coast or Albania. Accordingly, at least temporarely, Italy had to abandon nearly all imperial aspirations. Many Italians would come to find this term harsh (especially among those who were pushing for the creation of an Italian Empire), due to Italy's later economic weakness. The economic weakness of Italy would later lead to support of Fascism.