Treaty of Copenhagen
Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Powers with Germany and Central Powers
WW1 TitlePicture For Wikipedia Article
The First World War
17 March 1918 (1918-03-17)
Copenhagen, Denmark
1 January 1919
Ratification by Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, and Russia
Signatories Central Powers
  • German Empire
  • Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • Ottoman Empire


  • France
  • Russian Empire
  • Italy


  • British Empire
Depositary Danish Government
Languages German
  • French
  • Russian


The Treaty of Copenhagen was a treaty between the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, and the Ottoman Empire and the Allied Powers of France, Italy, and Russia. The treaty was the end of World War One, which was a Central Powers victory. A ceasefire was called in the war on November 9th, 1918, as peace was to be discussed. The meetings took place in Copenhagen, which, while neutral, was close to Germany, symbolizing the German victory in the war. The British Empire, while not in the war itself, was also present to make sure that everything was acceptable. The negotiations were heated and took weeks, but on March 17th, a finalized treaty was signed, and it became effective on the first day of 1919.


Western Front

  • France is to cede an area approximately 10 miles deep (specifics were discussed later) to Germany in the Alsace-Lorraine region, giving Germany a sort of buffer and further demoralizing the French populace
  • Germany is to annex Luxembourg
  • The French military will be limited to 150,000 men in peacetime and 300,000 in wartime.
  • The production of poison gas, planes, and tanks of any kind will not be allowed in France.
  • French Indochina is to be ceded to Germany

Italian Front

  • Italy is to cede the Venito region to Austria-Hungary
  • The Italian military will not be able to produce tanks, planes, and poison gas of any type.
  • The Italian military is limited to 100,000 men in peacetime and 200,000 men in wartime.
  • Italian Tunisia is to be ceded to Germany
  • Italian Libya is to be ceded to the Ottoman Empire

Balkan Front

  • Austria-Hungary is to annex Montenegro
  • Serbia is to be reduced back to its 1912 borders, and the remainder will be split between Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria
  • Eastern Romania will be ceded to Bulgaria, and northern Romania will be ceded to Austria-Hungary
  • Serbia is to become a vassal of Austria-Hungary
  • Romania is to become a vassal of Bulgaria

Eastern Front

  • The area with a Lithuanian ethnic majority is to be ceded to Germany
  • A Polish nation will be created out of the Polish-dominated areas, and Poland is to become a vassal of Germany
  • Ukraine is to be created out of land west of the Dnieper River, and north to the southern border of Poland, and is to be a Austro-Hungarian vassal
  • White Russia will be created out of land west of the Dnieper north of Ukraine to the northern Lithuanian (German) border, and is to be a vassal of Germany.

Caucasus Front

  • all land taken by Russia after 1900 is to be returned to the Ottoman Empire.

Treaty of Copenhagen

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